Sir Harold Kroto (2010) - The Revolutionary Impact of the GOOYouWiki World (GYWW) on Education and Student Success (Lecture + Discussion)

It’s a pleasure to be back in Lindau and 9 months a year in Florida State where, a great place to be and 3 months back in Europe somewhere. This is a fairly serious talk so if you really want some fun you better go down to the casino I think. I’m going to talk about science, society and sustainability and the GOOYouWiki World and the impact I think that will be on you to some extent in the future and probably you won’t get this anywhere else. And this particular talk I always start with my favourite quotation which is if you make people think they’re thinking they’ll love you. But if you really make them think they’ll hate you. And there may be some issues that I will address where you may decide to walk out but then I’ll know I’ve been successful because you’ve been thinking about it, ok. So those are the sort of things and they are rather serious. But young people, I didn’t sort of know where I was going and at school I found I wanted to be superman and I found it was a bit difficult flying. Is this switched on, no, can I switch this on, somewhere on here there’s. Do you hear that, well anyway I like it loud so it’s so deafening, anyway. But anyway the point is I played tennis and I did gymnastics at school. And also at school I acted in a play, Henry V and I’m the handsome guy on the right here. And I always tell young people, you know you mustn’t be an actor because the guy in front stayed an actor, stay as a scientist because now he’s 5,000 years old, this guy. And I’m a lot younger, right. But Ian McKellan and I were at school together, in the same year and in fact he came out to Florida State and stayed with us a few days and he was fantastic, a one man show at Tallahassee. And worked with the young people there and they were just over the moon. So there are lots of things and if you go to an art university and there’s a youngster here who must be the youngest guy here, stand up, he’s won an award. I mean he’s about 5 years old I think, you know, he looks like it to me anyway. About 17 or 18. I had Meccano when I was a kid and it was very important, the sort of thing that many of you don’t have anymore. And my world was made of nuts and bolts and I thought I’d show you this ad, my favourite ad really, Meccano boys and of course nowadays you’ve got to add girls, are keen, ambitious and inventive, no boy or girl, who follows the Meccano hobby can be a bad boy, or unfortunately bad girl, ok. So if you want to go out with a girl who hasn’t had Meccano, right, you know. Anyway those are these things. My world was made of nuts and bolts and screws and things like this and here are some little kids who are really enjoying themselves, making things, which is very important because that’s the lead into science. The other thing is my main passion I suppose is actually art and graphic art and drawing and when I was at school and at university I did a whole load of these things. And you can do that, not just your subject but these are posters, the cover of the magazine, this is sort of the cover of Sheffield Magazine, books and things and things of this nature, menus. And this design got me my first award which was not for science, it was for the Sunday Times book jacket design and I used to look like this, believe it or not. Now most of you are young and beautiful now but you're going to look old and decrepit like me one day. I’ll get my own back on you some day. But you know university is such a fantastic time. For the Ausie’s, there’s the Australian soccer team, it’s good. So anyway we should hold it upside down I guess because both the Brits and the Ausies got thrown out. But this is for a children’s workshop on Buckeyballs in Australia. So I do logos and this is the Kroto Research Institute with a test tube. Lots of things like this, the sort of things that I like doing. I actually, for the Japanese I redesigned your flag actually. And I designed a stamp. I think I deserve, you know a dollar for every Japanese flag that comes out like this, you going to. inaudible comment from audience 00:04:48). Oh yeah right, hi, ok, there you go, just in case you didn’t see it, the new Japanese flag, ok. So anyway my wife who is in the audience and she’s the only reason I got here because she knows where I'm supposed to be. And this is Stockholm town hall where the Nobel Prize is awarded and I drew this when I was a kid, long before I knew what the Nobel Prize was but it’s a fantastic building if you’re in Stockholm and you like brick, fantastic brick buildings. So that’s the sort of thing that you must, I think as a scientist it’s not just being science but keep all those other options open, because you never know how those will get into your life. Now for me I developed what I call my 4 out of 5 rule. And it’s a scientific method and it is basically that if you make a new observation, develop a theory you think that explains it and design some further experiments to test the validity of the theory. If 4 observations out of 5 fit, the theory is almost, almost certainly right. If 1 out of 5 fit the theory is almost certainly wrong. And the key aspect in science is almost, you leave yourself a little bit of leeway because as you know often as time goes on our understanding of the world changes. And for instance you see Newton, you know basically, everybody believes that an apple fell on his head, well in actual fact it was not that way. It was that what happened and he got stuck to the apple, right. And he had to tear up his actual theory. The point is he did an experiment, ok. This is my favourite, one of my favourite cartoons, I’m afraid it’s about 40 years old and I can’t find the original but this is a Xerox copy and the first Xeroxes were not very good, ok, so I’m left with this. I did the best I can to show you what science is about. Perhaps more than anything else is pattern of numbers, 1, 3, 5 is more important to you than anything else and I’m going to teach you chemistry in 30 seconds. The earth orbits the sun, we have classical mechanics, ok. The electron orbiting a nucleus is quantum mechanics and we quantise angular momentum and there are 2 J + 1 orientations around the spin axis. So when J is zero, 2 J + 1 is 1, when J is 1, 2 J + 1 is 3 and when J is 2, 2 J + 1 is 5, ok. Now that’s the origin of 1, 3, 5. now I know a number of physicist are here, right, are they. Who don’t like numbers, you know. So I’m going to throw them away and leave the boxes for you physicists here. Ok I’m going to double them up, ok move that to there, move this to there, that to there, this to there, that doubled you, double that, double this, move that to there, this to there and what have we got. The periodic table, based on the numbers 1, 3 and 5. And that’s what science is, some deep simple rules underpinning the complexity. The complexity of the whole of chemistry, all of biology and that’s all of life and all the useful bits of physics, if any. But you know chemist have a chip on their shoulder because physics is of course the overarching science of the universe, the way it works, the way it is, the way things happen. And chemistry is that major part of physics, that pertains to you and us in this particular room, life, the chemistry that goes on. Now it turns out that there is a website with scientific tattoos and I thought this was very interesting because I think what does it do for someone to decide to put say the Schrödinger equation on a tattoo. They’re saying something very personal, something that I really find fascinating and interesting. My favourite thing from undergrad was quantum mechanics, I’m still amazed by its mystery and its odd logic. And here this is Paul, ok, Maxwell’s equations, here’s glycolipid membrane that she made, Serotonin. This is of course I would say the greatest equation, the greatest breakthrough of the 19th century when Maxwell pulled electricity and magnets and light together. The whole of DNA goes on here, half of Buckeyball, the famous Euler equation. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle. I won’t tell you what that is, just in case you decide to make it. There’s the Born Opp Approximation and this is my favourite and believe it or not that arm walked past me on Monday, what day is today, Tuesday ok well it must have been yesterday. And it turns out that Nicole, with that, walked past me and here she is yesterday at the Inselhalle and here’s the rest of the Taylor series. And there she is, is Nicole here, hi. And believe it or not that was before, the first part was before I saw her, I mean what's the probability that my favourite tattoo would walk past me. And I think it shows a fascination with something which is deep in mathematics and something that’s interesting. Which is something that scientists have, that not many other people have. And that’s what I’m trying to get at within the sciences. And I usually follow it with my favourite, which if I were to have a tattoo would be the differential of e to the x because if we take calculus and take it through this whole set like this and then you look at the Taylor expansion of e to the x. I remember watching this and seeing this for the first time and thinking that differential just moved out and I thought I could have died happy if I’d discovered that, and I think that again tells us something about mathematics which people who don’t, haven’t done mathematics will never really appreciate. And so there it is, my favourite is the differential of e to the x is equal to e to the x. And of course here we have Nicole saying my tattoo is the Taylor series of sine, I consider it the most beautiful thing I have ever learned, it has the additional meaning to me that’s sin x is equal to x, is one of the most useful things in physics, thank you. I like that very much because it’s something I want to do. Now it turns out there’s a secret tattoo here and what is it, well it’s Victoria’s secret there too, but it’s this and it comes from Darwin’s drawing and I’ve actually made it into a T-shirt, so here’s my secret society. And these shirts are going around Tallahassee at the moment and we’re going to make some bumper stickers and so if you want to join the secret society, because nobody but a small number of people know what it is, we will take over the world, ok. So that’s it. And of course an interesting thing about quantum mechanics is that the operators don’t commute. And that's a very interesting aspect of, woops a daisy, I want to go to, let me just see where we are, yes we’re here. The other thing that perhaps is very important is that in science many things come from left field. And the most important thing that you must learn if you’re going to do science is that you can never foresee exactly where you're going to go. So always do an experiment you’re interested in, even if you think it’s boring and it turns out perhaps the most mundane experiment I ever did, ever thought of doing, was the one with Rick Smalley and Bob Curl, Yuan Liu, Sean O’Brien and particularly Jim Heath in Rice which led to the discovery of C60. And the interesting thing is it’s in those mundane experiments, the ones that nobody else is really bothered with, that some of the surprises lurk, it’s almost obvious isn’t it, so you have to be careful. The things that people fund are probably not so important. Now we’re going to some more serious aspects of what I want to talk about and I’m serious about this. Common sense indicates that sun goes around the earth, who agrees with me. I mean look at it, yeah, does it, doesn’t it, right it’s over here and it goes, it’s common sense, you don’t need common sense, you don’t need to know the earth goes, that the earth goes around the sun to survive. So common sense is really dependent on survival in many ways. It’s uncommon sense which recognises the earth turning on its axis, ok. It’s the uncommon sense of Copernicus and Galileo. And you have to learn to be very careful, in fact it’s not easy to show that it’s the earth turning on its axis, it’s not obvious and that’s why it took a long time. In fact question everything and I do mean everything. It may take centuries to dispel false belief. In this case 1992, it was only in 1992 when the Vatican decided Galileo was right, ok. That’s an indication of the sort of issues. My view now is that nonsense is very common. And I’m going to give you an example, this is what I call the Kentucky Fried Creation museum. And this is a $27 million museum where bus loads of children are coming in to learn that the grand canyon was carved by Noah’s flood 5,000 years ago. And that Noah was a Scot by the way, is there somewhere a Scot in the audience, I think somewhere, because he’d got a Scottish accent. And he’s saying there’s a big flood coming and we’ve got to build a big boat. And here, did humans live with dinosaurs, god made Adam and Eve on the same day as land animals so dinosaurs and people lived at the same time. So if they did we obviously put a saddle on them and we must have ridden them. A friend of mine is riding a dinosaur in the museum. What did dinosaurs originally eat, originally before Adam sinned, all animals including dinosaurs were vegetarian. Don’t try and give this a cauliflower, I tell you. What happened to the dinosaurs, they didn’t go into Noah’s ark, they were all drowned in the flood 4,350 years ago and many were buried and preserved as fossils, ok. And the point is that this is being taught to young people in the USA, in some of the schools and other places. And here’s a little girl scratching her head. And I think that presents a problem. Now some of you Americans will recognise what that is and some of us. Another favourite quotation, I love quotations, ‘If liberty means anything at all it means the right to tell people what they do not want to hear’, ok George Orwell said that. And maybe this is it, which way truth, ok. Well this is sort of interesting aspect of this. If you go on the web, there’s evidence in a book, here is that god’s word and meeting, quote perhaps from the bible because everything is in there, that you need to know and evidence is of these things. There’s also a book that I discovered this morning called the Nobel book of answers. Now I don’t think any of these guys, the Dalai Lama, Mikhail Gorbachev, Shimon Perez and other Nobel, I don’t know anybody who has given, did you know about this book. No I didn’t know about this book. Well should I stick with the religion I was brought up in which my father was Jewish and I was brought up to be Jewish, or should I convert to one with the best artists, because you know that’s, should I, one with the most well defined laws. And here is Cat Stevens who converted and became an apostate from Rock and according to him with regard to Salman Rushdie, under Islamic law the ruling regarding blasphemy is quite clear, the person found guilty of it must be put to death. Or what about a quick conversion in a hotel, if you open the book you’ll find the book of Mormon in the Marriott Hotels and here is a painting of Christ preaching to the ancient Americans. He apparently got to America before Columbus, according to the Marriott Hotel book. If you want the oldest, I think the oldest living religion at the moment, the indigenous aborigines in Australia, they’ve a lovely one, they have dream time and that the world, man and various animals were created by supernatural beings who afterwards disappeared. What about famous celebrities, these 2, they believe apparently in Scientology invented by a science fiction writer. What about Hinduism, this seems to have the most fun as far as I can see. But you do have to be fairly acrobatic I think. One with a lot of gods, I like this one, this is Shinto, here is one of my favourites here because they’re really happy guys, I like happy gods. Buddhism, no god at all as far as I can tell, and in fact apparently you have no mind when you’ve really got there and I’m not sure if I want to go in for that one. Perhaps one of the most interesting ones is Jainism, it’s an ancient religion prescribing non violence to all living beings and I think, I can go along with that one. Or probably here in, or not here but in England the oldest probably original sacred structure still standing is Stonehenge. And there’s a lot of people who follow and go to Stonehenge in summer solstice. What is in the book, I’m going to show you my favourite book on this one. Simon the wanderer sole human survivor of the earth, he travels the universe with a dog, an owl and a mechanical lover. Searching for the answer to why were we created to suffer and die. At the end of his journey Simon meets hoary old cockroach called Bingo, ok we learn the universe is an experiment carried out by a race of cockroaches and that life and humans evolved from cockroach crap. There it is, crapped on the earth ok and we evolved from that. Simon asks why did they do this when it meant so much agony, suffering and death to sextillions upon sextillions of living beings, why, why, why, why. But why not says the cockroach. But that’s a good one. I thought you know which book shall I follow and I think maybe that one. So now I’ll come to say my definition of science and I think I want you to think about this, whether you feel it’s right and it’s the one that I think. It’s the philosophical construct which man has developed to determine what is true, might be true and can be true. So it’s the search for truth. When you think of science in that way, it puts it on a whole different level from what people think about science. You know it’s that thing that creates mobile phones, atomic bombs, it’s not, it’s very different, it’s a philosophical thing, it’s the way we determine what is true. If you accept that, truth must be universal and cannot vary from country to country or planet to planet, right. Truth assumes that the experiment always behaves the same way, that no mystical entity tampers with the observation, i.e. praying will not affect the result, ok. Truth is an intellectual integrity issue for me. And therefore it’s a science issue and it’s an ethical issue, ok. That’s what I firmly believe if I believe anything. And it lies at the heart of the matter and without it anything goes, without truth. And in teaching young people the way to determine truth lies the ethical reason for the conflict between science and dogma, political and religious and any other dogma. It’s a very deep issue. Not for everybody, but it is for about 90% of scientists. And that’s an issue which won’t go away. The famous American writer Walt Whitman had what I think is the best definition of science, he said I like the scientific spirit, the holding up, the being sure, but not too sure, that’s the artist in him, to be sure and then pulls you back, you know, a really great writer but not too sure. The willingness to surrender ideas when the evidence is against them, this is ultimately fine, it keeps the way beyond open. And that’s important, that’s what science is always keeping it open, right, in those sort of issues. We’ve got to recognise that our cousins, you know it’s obviously an England football supporter and an Australian one as well, right, 99% of our genes, the same as this beautiful guy, I mean I’m just at one with this fellow, clearly related to human beings. And looking at these 2 politicians I can well believe it, ok. Sustainability, I think it’s the biggest problem that you young people will confront because I think I’m going to be well out of here when the shit hits the fan so saving the planet is bigger than one country can do. This oil slick problem is bigger than one company, it’s bigger than one country, it is a global problem, it’s a massive problem. I think much bigger than the Manhattan problem in many ways. It’s a global citizenship problem. And we’ve got to think about sustainability issues. And then far the most important one as far as I’m concerned, if we’re going to solve it technically and we’ve got social engineering to do as well, I think we’ve got to learn to split water into hydrogen and oxygen and we’ve got to have a much more efficient solar electricity production. And possibly develop a wheat that can fix its own nitrogen. Those are just some of the issues that perhaps we can solve. It’s the 4 out of 5 problem. Let’s look at climate change, so you understand why I think we need to think about science and what science is and how we determine something. This is the Newsweek, global warming is a hoax, it said, well asterisk. Who cares about global warming, well maybe this guy does. It’s a scientific problem to decide, ok, so we go back to my 4 or 5 rule. Let’s look at the evidence, well this over the last 600,000 years are the hot spots in the red, above the line. That bit is the CO2 in green, that is since the industrial revolution, so we’ve added about ¼ of the CO2, so there is a difference between all previous hot regions over the last 600,000 years and now we’ve got this extra CO2. It’s just one observation. This is the measurements from Hawaii which have been going up and up every year since the industrial revolution. In the Antarctic the estimates are, on the left you can see the ice has retracted and it’s estimated in 2040 the artic may be ice free. The Greenland, the red parts are the way in which it melts every year and in 1992 there was no melting in this part, now there’s this big area, ok so another observation. What about the north pole, well this seems to be shrinking and here we can see now the shrinkage which is now up to the last 4 years, another piece of observation. This is a glacier in 1909 and a glacier in 2004, 1948 to 2008, a glacier in Oberland Switzerland. Sea level rise is interesting, since 1880 it’s gone up 20 centimetres. I’m told that the London barrage that keeps London from being flooded has been used about 10 times as many, about 10 or 20 times or something in the last few years compared to hardly at all 30 years ago. This is the US use of oil and this is all of Europe, China catching up very rapidly. These are the sort of observations that we need to think. I’m not telling you this is global warming, I’m just giving you observations, I want you to make up your own mind, ok, that’s what science is. Looking at the observations and thinking carefully about them and see whether it is. There are other issues, billion starving people, 1/6th of the world. My favourite logo is coming up now because my favourite animal is the dung beetle, is sitting on a lump of elephant crap, recycling it. If they didn’t recycle elephant crap we would be about 800 feet deep in elephant crap, right, because some things. But we are deep in crap. Let’s look at what we are deep in. A field in England with 140,000 refrigerators. Ok that’s our crap, we don’t know how to recycle it really. And here’s my logo for the future. We need to think about recycling as well. Nature, reverence for nature is absolutely vital, we’ve got to learn to love trees as we do our animals and things of this nature. We’ve got to really set a good example. I mean this is quite painful, even just to look at, this fish is still alive, taking the hook out of its mouth, fish don’t have vocal cords so you can’t hear them squealing. Imagine you’re swinging your pet cat around. There it is, the damage and scientific studies show that these animals really feel pain. And these children, I think if these animals were screaming like a pet cat would do, I don’t think they’d be quite so happy. You know just some observations about animals. Well look at this, I mean this is a bear that’s just been shot, so looking and shooting animals, catching fish, it’s not hard to shoot sheep is it or, there you go. but there’s another way and I think many of us who are scientists know that this is the way that we should bring up or kids. We should shoot animals but with cameras, right, these animals are still alive. So it’s an education issue. As far as health warning, I think we should tell people, you know they’re taking medicine and they’ve put a danger, this medication will only work if Darwin and evolution is correct, ok because all the medications are dependent on an understanding of the evolution of bacteria. So I’m trying to get the medical companies to put this danger warning on their medication. Anaesthetics, just look at this, there are no mobile phones. Rowlandson, this fantastic etching shows the real horror or what it must have been like to have an amputation without chemistry, without anaesthetics. There can be no more humanitarian contribution than anaesthetics. Penicillin, that is a miracle molecule. and she was cured in 3 weeks. Bacteria are evolving now with an immunity to antibiotics, we may be going back to this, we need young people like you to really think very carefully about solving those sorts of problems. It’s an education problem. We need heroes and we don’t have them because this is a typical example of a scientist, I know it looks like me, you know, but who is responsible, here’s the guy. Ok if only he’d cut his hair, but the thing is that he’s an impostor, he didn’t do that, he wasn’t the guy who did, the guy who did it was this guy, totally unknown. In fact yes it’s young Einstein, in fact he was 17, younger than our youngest guy here when he was thinking about what it would be like to travel at the velocity of light. So what he did was actually really coming from his youth, your youth, your education. We have this guy and he’s a scientologist on top of it, ok. Darwin well when he wrote this book or did the work he was a young Charlie. Maxwell, when these fantastic equations were developed, he was wee Jamie with a little quiff on his head here. And Rosalind Franklin’s beautiful picture when she did her work, she was a beautiful young woman. And that fantastic image which lead to DNA and genetic engineering. Chandrasekhar was a young man when he showed that a star one and a half times the size of the sun would collapse into a black hole. So those are the heroes that we need young people and we need them. So I’ve been involved in that and I’ve been doing a lot of work shops around the world. I think our kids need to be taught together, I love this picture, in a workshop, one of our Buckeyball workshops, where these kids who are enjoying themselves, pulled together by science, by truth. And if we don’t do that we’ll have Fox television telling us what to do, ok. You’re part of a fantastic community, the size is different from all the others because our philosophy, our construct is the same whatever country, whatever you believe, whatever nationality, you have something that almost no other culture within society has, ok, language is not there, it is science, it’s actually truth. And it’s that reason that I set up some years ago the Vega Science Trust, to make programs by scientists because I recognise that the second revolution was the internet. And they’re all on the internet, we have maybe 300 programs on there now, it’s democratised broadcasting. We’ve pioneered a new concept in TV debate, participants should actually know something, right. Children’s work shops, we’ve got fantastic programs by Feynman, if you’re a physicist watch our 6 hours of Feynman, you can watch him whichever way. We deal with issues. For instance an issue which we found interesting, that the embargo on DDT condemned a million children to death every year, think about it, just the embargo, not DDT, that was withdrawn and the decision to withdraw it meant that incidents of malaria in South Africa and India went up by about a factor of 10. So something like a million children a year instead of a hundred thousand died. Joseph Rotblat, the greatest man I knew personally and Max Perutz, they’re all out there. Max Perutz, the father really of nanotechnology and molecular machines and haemoglobin. They’re all on my website and many of the recordings were made here in Lindau. Well I had to retire 4 or 5 years ago and FSU wanted me to come and they said they were interested in helping me to do some more research and the educational program. And I thought I’d show you my new co-workers, they’re quite good with a soccer ball. The Wake Forest game was worse than losing 4 - 1, it was love 28 Wake Forest, Florida State lost that. And as one guy said they were lucky to get nil at the time, ok. Joe Namath is my favourite American footballer, partly because he went down to the Astrodome in Houston where it was first played on artificial turf and they asked, said Joe do you prefer playing on astro turf or grass, he said, or they said do you prefer astro turf or grass and he said I don’t know I’ve never smoked astro turf. So out of Florida State and what's the situation. I think in the last 10 years you have seen the biggest revolution in education that there’s ever been. How many of you looked at encyclopaedia Britannica, this week, ok, how many looked at Google this week, Wikipedia this week, ok, Youtube this week. Those numbers tell you something of what we’re talking about. These are drawings in encyclopaedia Britannica. Let’s look at your world, the GooYouWiki World, what it is. If I want to see for instance an image of C60, I don’t go to encyclopaedia Britannica, that’s the picture in there, not very imaginative, I go to the Google image browser and I put in, so any of those and I say look at these things and there are pages and pages and pages and pages and pages and pages and pages and pages and pages and pages and pages and pages and pages and even rotating buckeyballs, ok. It’s a revolution, well it is revolving as well, ok. It’s a triple revolution, Google can find the information and access, it’s a paradigm shift in that. Even embedded material. Youtube, you can create your own program, ok that wasn’t possible, it used to be television or Hollywood was in charge. And the most interesting is the way that Wikipedia has catalysed your ability and your enthusiasm, individual’s enthusiasm to create an educational concept and put it out there. These are very exciting breakthroughs and we can now work with this technology to actually put, build a global cache of information out there. So how are we doing it, well it's what I call GYWW 2.0. And it’s just a little bit further on, we use a capture station or Colin who is over in the corner is actually recording this using this sort of technology. We are recording now many of the talks here or are being recorded and recording this one, so there’s a video and then there’s downloadable Power Point. Because you’re watching mainly this, right. so you could just watch this and I could be in a Punch and Judy, you know like television set looking through this. And we can do that and that will be downloadable for teachers, so teachers can actually take that material and use it directly in the classroom or refine it for their own uses. I’ve done kids workshops, lots of them, I did 3 last week in Sheffield and Bolton, in Japan, Santa Barbara, Mexico, Malaysia, went to kids in Iceland by internet and across the whole of Australia to 2,000 children. In the UK, when I show this in the UK it’s sometimes streamed by young women but it’s not the bloke on the right, it’s the guy on the left, the one with hair and he’s scored 2 fantastic goals for I think Paraguay or Uruguay, ok. So that’s what we’re doing, using the internet to go wherever we can. We can teach algebra to 5 and 6 year olds. I think I just want to show you this one, it will take a while because I made a mistake, I didn’t bring this up on it, it should come up in a minute and what we’re doing is we’re getting the students of Florida state to do little recordings of things that they’re interested in. And this one is on beetles and I’m actually taking my whole honours class and they are doing a little project and I put 1/3 marks on it and it turns out the enthusiasm for this project goes up sky high. They really like the idea of putting something, creating something about something that they’re interested in and getting it out on the web and helping in basically this sort of global educational process. Hopefully this will come today, there we are, ok. Here are the beetles, George, John, Ringo and Paul, we all know their music and most of us even know of their impact on the world today. However whether we realise it or not we’ve had more contact with another type of beetle and they have had far more impact on our lives. These beetles, the insects. This presentation will be all about the wonderful world of beetles. So why talk about bugs, they seem so insignificant and so unimportant. Well first of all the study of insects is an extensive branch in modern biological research. And for those chemically minded who are with us, there’s plenty of interesting chemistry that goes on inside in beetles. But the most important part of this presentation is to show you that beetle are actually very interesting creatures and lots of people don’t know about beetles so we’re going to show you some interesting facts. First of all beetles are not bugs, they’re insects… I’m going to stop it there. This is going to be your future because you're all going to have to record for the internet. Now I’m going to show you why in a minute, let me get out of that one and show you what I’m doing, I’m doing assessment. Now this is a pilot paper, I don’t know anyone who likes assessing but many of you in the States, you will have done some assessment, yeah, ok. But this is what I think of it, right, this is the teacher, now the problem is you want a good mark but this is the teacher who really doesn’t want to do this, right. They would like to have their feet up but watching this in England, I can drink a glass of wine and watch my students making a presentation. So what you want to do is when someone is going to read your CV, ok, you want to make a really good presentation and that’s what we’re doing, ok so let’s look at this. And now I’m going to have to jump out because I made one mistake which I’m sorry about but I’m going to try and get this because I want you to see what we’re doing in, ok we’re in there, we go into presentations, you’ve got to see how much stuff I get on this laptop. And we’re going to movies, ok, we’re going to go to Kerry and we’re going to go to presentations and we’re going to launch that, ok, open with internet explorer, ok. There’s a change in Firefox that I’ve not been able to solve. So that was an undergraduate, so we’re using this and using that in assessment of our undergraduate’s projects. But our graduate students like many of you here are also doing this. Playing video. Hi, my name is Kerry Gilmore and I am a graduate student here at (inaudible 40.15) State University. I work for Doctor (inaudible) as an organic chemist. I love organic chemistry because it provides the opportunity to go through (inaudible,) you can really look at designing molecules, we can figure out how to actually make these molecules in the environment. We actually get to go in the lab and build these things. Now the greatest organic chemist by far is nature. Nature can go through and teach something as simplistic as these small seeds and through a series of organic transformations using chemistry that we ourselves use, they would go through and transform into these beautiful complex and beautiful flowers you can see here. Now what we do is much the same, we take something relatively small, something relatively simplistic and through a series of transformations we need to figure out how to make something that's much larger and much more complex. Actually we started with something relatively simple and formed something ultimately much more complex. And if we look at that last structure there with the last (inaudible 41.26)…before reaction finishes it goes through and looks (inaudible) more triple bonds in this case. We can go through and fully zip up these structures. We can go through and take something, instead of just something that’s relatively small and close it up. We can extend now all the way through and form much longer chains. I’m going to stop it there. this is the future of the CV, the curriculum vitae. And I’m going to tell you, show you why, let me just minimise that and I need to get back into my program. I just forgot to get this all set up before you came in. And I’m going to show you how long, who has spent 5 hours on their CV, 10 hours, days, yeah. Kerry spent about 10 minutes in our studio making that program, on the basis of the presentations that he’s already doing, the material is already, how many of you make presentations with Power Point, ok, you’ve already got the material, ok. This is where your CV is, alright, you spent hours on it and it’s in a pile of those because you’re one of, in many cases, how many of you applied for a job, put your hands up, how many, 10, who has sent of 10 applications, ok yeah, some people have sent off 50 and 100 and if you’re lucky you’re somewhere in the middle of this. And then there’s a group here who haven’t read it, you think they’ve got the time to read all that stuff, have you got the time to read it, have they got the time to spend on your CV, the time you deserve. Think about it, they haven’t got it. Your perception of yourself in your mind goes into this résumé and you’re expecting them to translate it back into exactly yourself, right, it’s impossible. In fact what you want and here’s someone thinking about it, is that what you’d like. And you’re sitting there in the library, there till 10 o’clock every day, you know working very hard and what they’ve really come up with is probably this, you see. With the little dog in the corner, right. And that’s the problem, we don’t know even a few percent of you are after that CV. So what is the situation, well I’m going to show you what the situation is, these are, Kerry has just got a Fulbright Scholarship to go to Italy and I contacted them and they did look at his presentation, they weren’t going to say that it was, how important it was. Steve Acquah made a fantastic program, he’s really brilliant, in front of the camera and behind the camera and also running my group and we got a Rich Media award. Prajna was the first person that I recorded, she’s just got 4 tenure track offers and it turns out they told her that they could see from the presentation that she could teach. They didn’t have to depend on the reference, ok. Brittany has just sent me 2 weeks ago, she said I was accepted into Dartmouth Medical School, the opportunity to do the presentation was a defining factor. That was an undergrad, she wouldn’t have done it if it hadn’t been part of the course, ok. You got the message, ‘recording was really fun, I think it helped me get the position, I appreciate being part of it with Steve and the others’, ok. And this is one of the most recent, Artrease has just got a scholarship, she was short listed, I now know she’s got it and she was told at the interview how much, because she sent, the URL of her presentation which was streaming from Florida State, in her application and they said they enjoyed her GS presentation. You do it and we can now make sure that people know how good you are. You’ve seen Vinnie and other people, these are young undergraduates, I don’t really have time because we’re nearly finished and I want to finish. I lecture in a certain way, if you think it’s a good way, on my GS site there’s some of the very simple secrets and tricks of the trade which I suggest you do, one of them is and I think most people here, could you read everything on my overhead and this is a little screen. I would say 9 out of 10 times if they have a big screen you can’t read everything, everything on my slide you can read and I’m hyperlinking into a cache. You’ve seen probably 1,000 images whilst you're looking there. But we are scientists, and some of us take responsibility very seriously, there’s several organisation. If you're going to do physics we don’t need any more atomic bombs, we’ve got 28,000 of them and 3,500 atomic bombs can be set off within 90 seconds. We can obliterate the whole world within 90 seconds, think about it, it is possible to do it, it’s just a decision by somebody. Chemistry, we don’t need anymore napalm, I think one of the, the one I feel very responsible for as a chemist is this image about napalm that chemistry created, that terrible anti-personnel sort of device. Engineering, we don’t need any more landmines, the world is just covered with them. There are kids in Africa on crutches with one leg playing soccer, dreaming of going to the Paraplegic Olympic Games, that’s their goal, alright, with one leg, they’re incredible kids, one leg. So scientists I think have a responsibility. Leon Lederman wrote to me a few weeks ago, he said Harry you’re making observations and he said so many years have passed and the human race is still saddled with enough nuclear weapons to destroy the planet. We must redouble our efforts to unify the scientific community against this huge stupidity. Leon Lederman, Nobel Laureate was head of CERN, a great American physicist. The greatest man I knew personally was Joseph Rotblat. And I’m going to tell you why, not only was he a delightful, warm and fantastically wonderful human being, here’s a picture of him when he was 93, he died just a few years later at 97. He worked tirelessly to stop the proliferation of nuclear weapons. He was the only scientist, maybe there was one other, I’m not sure, who left the atomic bomb project before the bomb was completed. And when it wasn’t necessary. Before it was completed. If only all the others had walked off the project, unfortunately they didn’t. From the Nobel address Joe said, ‘we appealed as human beings to human beings’, he says, It’s a great line, isn’t it, isn’t it a beautiful line. If you can do so the way lies open to a new paradise, if you cannot there lies before you the risk of universal death. The quest for a war free world has a basic purpose, survival but if in the process we learn how to achieve it by love, rather than by fear, by kindness rather than by compulsion. If in the process we learn to combine the essential and the enjoyable, the expedient with the benevolent. The practical with the beautiful, this will be an extra incentive to embark on this great task. Above all remember your humanity. And here is Joe in his unbelievable office, just look at this, look at that. I mean how are those books staying up in the air, just how, what has he done to do that. And here’s a picture taken by Peter Badge actually in the Einstein Café in Berlin in front of me, in front of Joe in Berlin. Remember your humanity and forget the rest, if only we could all do that. I love San Francisco and this is my favourite book at the moment and maybe for a long, long time. Paul Madonna, the drawings of San Francisco, how many of you have been to San Francisco. You’ll love this book, get it because you’ll just love not only the drawings but also what it says. For instance there’s one, ‘set your ideals to the image of your idol, pull your collar tight and walk into the storm’. But my favourite is this one, ‘take a stand and automatically you have a supporter and an enemy’. You young people are going to have to take a stand, there’s a lot of ignorance out there. You may not agree with me but you really do make sure that an understanding of science, if we don’t have more people understanding, politicians and other people to really understand that science is not just this thing that produces mobile phones. It’s a way of thinking and I think it’s the only way of thinking as far as I’m concerned. I’m going to finish with my favourite poster, it’s by Stein, I think I got it in California. This guy was unbelievable, he said ‘I’m an alien creature, I was sent from another planet with a message of good will from my people. The message says, dear earth people, when you finally at last destroy your planet and have no place to live, you can come and live with us and we will teach you how to live in peace and harmony and we will give you a coupon, good for 10% off all deep dish pizzas too, sincerely Bob’. I mean I’ve given you a little bit of evidence, it’s up to you to decide, that’s what we are as scientists, you don’t take what I say, just have a look at the evidence, check whether it’s correct. Think about it. Are we destroying the planet. It doesn’t look good. Peace and harmony, isn’t it incredible, we’re in the 21st century and we still can’t solve our problems between one country and another without sitting down at a table, instead we don’t sit down at the table, we send young people like you to go and kill each other, it’s unbelievable, we’re in the 21st century. And we’ve got nuclear weapons around too. But the end of the day it’s a pizza and a sense of humour and you know you really do need a sense of humour, especially today ok, but I don’t think life is worth living without. And finally my favourite bit of film, it’s the hope for the future… It’s your job and our job to make sure those kids are going to have a bit better world than you guys have, I’m afraid. But I do think that if the politicians and industrialists and most other people said rather than what's in best for our share holder’s pockets and our pockets and money. But rather than that what is in the best interest of those kids, our grandchildren, your grandchildren, your great grandchildren, I think we wouldn’t be in the real mess we’re in today. Thank you. End.

Sir Harold Kroto (2010)

The Revolutionary Impact of the GOOYouWiki World (GYWW) on Education and Student Success (Lecture + Discussion)

Sir Harold Kroto (2010)

The Revolutionary Impact of the GOOYouWiki World (GYWW) on Education and Student Success (Lecture + Discussion)

Abstract

Summary

Prof. Kroto starts his lecture with remarks on his boyhood and his passions at school and University, especially graphic art and drawing. He mentions his 4/5 rule and shows the connection between theory and experiments, and he is sold on scientific tattoos, e.g. Maxwell’s equations or Taylor series. Experimental results are not foreseeable and so one should always do an experiment one is interested in even if one thinks that it is boring. It was the way Kroto and coworkers discovered the C60.
He discusses religious aspects, warning against doubtful ideologies and presents his favorite book. Afterwards, he defines science from his point of view and highlights the importance of truth in science. Another aspect is the stewardship of available resources and nature. Sustainability is the biggest problem for young people and has to be solved for saving the planet. Many famous scientists we very young when they created their main work, so well educated young people are needed. In information a paradigm shift has happened, today reality is the Goo You Wiki World. Students should work with it and create their own programs, e.g. for job application. Scientists have great responsibilities, and most of them take them very seriously. Kroto is appealing to all of them to create a new war-free world and to fight for more humanity.

Abstract

It might be argued that the benefits to society of Science Engineering and Technology (SET) have generally outweighed the bad contributions, as the quality of life as well as the health of people, have improved enormously – at least in the developed world. However a massive improvement in the Political and Public Understanding of Science and Engineering etc (PPAUSE) will be necessary to realize both the future humanitarian promise of SET and/or ensure the imposition of the limitations that will safely constrain the dangers of our powerful technologies. The interference by politicians in science teaching in schools should be recognised as presenting a serious threat to our general well-being in general and the future of the Enlightenment in particular. In many countries education is superb - in the irrational - and abysmal in critical thinking; indeed in these countries the level of ignorance of SET is sure recipe for disaster in the future.

To combat such problems I set up The Vega Science Trust as a platform for expert scientists and engineers to communicate directly on issues that interest and/or concern them. Vega (www.vega.org.uk) is streaming science lectures, interviews, discussions, workshops as well as careers programs – all now freely available on the Internet. 75 of the 250 programmes were broadcast by the BBC. In addition a new, sister initiative, Global Educational Outreach for Science, Engineering and Technology (GEOSET) - has been initiated at Florida State University (US), Sheffield University (UK) and Toyo University (Japan). It is a program that recognises the fantastic potential for shifting the paradigm of the educational process that the GooYouWiki-World (GYWW), born at the start of the 21st Century, has created. Geoset uses a dual window format consisting of video coupled with synchronised, downloadable, supplementary data (eg powerpoint images etc). The primary focus is the empowerment of teachers worldwide by giving them access to the very best teaching materials, packaged for their direct use in the classroom. An unexpectedly exciting aspect has been the involvement of young students in the educational process. Furthermore a major bonus has been the creation of a highly effective new component of student CVs which is already yielding successful results in academic awards as well as job applications. The searchable gateway site is at www.geoset.info and the local site at www.geoset.fsu.edu.
“Although good decision-making cannot guaranteed by knowledge, common sense suggests that wisdom is an unlikely consequence of ignorance”.

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