Opening Ceremony (2014) - Opening Ceremony of the 64th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901 – Emil Adolf von Behring. in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths.” Stephan H. E. Kaufmann – Scientific Chair of the 64th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting; Director, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology. Robert Koch, the mentor actually of Paul Ehrlich and Emil Behring, discovered the aetiology of tuberculosis, a disease that killed 30% of all people living in the capitals of Europe. It was found that this is the basis for the development of antibiotics to treat diseases. And obviously it also was the basis for a better understanding of how vaccines work. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905 – Robert Koch “for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis.” The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1923 – Frederick Grant Banting and John James Rickard Macleod The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1924 – Willem Einthoven The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930 – Karl Landsteiner “for the discovery of human blood groups.” The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945 – Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernest Boris Chain and Sir Howard Walter Florey The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962 – Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson & Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins and its significance for information transfer in living material.” Klas Kärre – Scientific Chair of the 64th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting; Chairperson, Nobel Assembly for Physiology or Medicine at Karolinska Institute. So if we’re moving forward in time into the 2nd half of the 20th century, I think the great Nobel-awarded discovery is the structure of nucleic acids. It’s not only structure, it’s something that led us to understand how the information is carried in biology and also between generations. Today when we have the perspective, we can see that a number of diagnostic procedures and even therapeutics have evolved from understanding DNA and the genetic material. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967 – Ragnar Granit, Haldan Keffer Hartline and George Wald Wolfgang Schürer – Chairman of the Board of the Foundation Lindau Nobel Laureates Meetings. Science is an activity that does not respect borders. The scientific exchange across borders, across cultures, across gender is, if you wish, the DNA of science. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979 – Allan M. Cormack and Godfrey N. Hounsfield The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991 – Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann Stephan H. E. Kaufmann – Scientific Chair of the 64th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting; Director, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology. We have achieved a lot in the last 100 years. Enormous breakthroughs have been made but still we are not at the end of the road. And it is the next generation that has to face enormous challenges. And I’m sure they will be as successful as the past and bring up new accomplishments, new breakthroughs that will finally lead to the cure of many diseases that are still ravaging on this globe. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998 – Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984 – Niels K. Jerne, Georges J. F. Köhler and César Milstein and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies.” The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003 – Paul C. Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield Klas Kärre – Scientific Chair of the 64th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting; Chairperson, Nobel Assembly for Physiology or Medicine at Karolinska Institute. The challenge for the next generation of scientists will be to master not only their own discipline but to be able to communicate with representatives of other disciplines. You’ll have to be a team player in the future. And that’s why I think it’s so important to have meetings such as this one in Lindau. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008 – Harald zur Hausen The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008 – Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010 – Robert G. Edwards “for the development of in-vitro fertilization.” The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013 – James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof Countess Bettina Bernadotte af Wisborg – President of the Council for the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings. The history of the Nobel Prizes is a history of milestones and I think we have understood that so many more of them have to be reached. And Lindau definitely wants to be the source of inspiration and motivation for the young scientists but also for the Nobel laureates alike. Ladies and gentlemen, please welcome the Nobel laureates of the 64th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting. Good afternoon and welcome. My name is Adam Smith and I'm the Chief Scientific Officer at Nobel Media based in Stockholm, Sweden. And it’s my great pleasure to be your guide to this afternoon’s packed opening ceremony. Now to get things started I'd like to invite Bettina Countess Bernadotte, President of the Council for the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings, to give the opening address. (Applause) Young scientists, Nobel laureates, Minister Professor Dr. Wanka, your Royal Highness, excellencies, representatives of parliaments, ladies and gentlemen and Minister Aigner. Welcome to the 64th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting dedicated to physiology or medicine. Since 1951 Nobel laureates and young scientists have been meeting for the scientific dialogue here on the shores of Lake Constance. This year you, more than 600 young scientists from 80 countries, are invited to this exchange with 37 Nobel laureates. As we convene here for a week of lectures, panels and debates we become part of a very special community extending the great tradition of an open exchange between generations and cultures. May you all benefit from this week and live the Lindau spirit – Educate, Inspire, Connect. For this dialogue to flourish we need students who are eager to learn and who are open to new thinking. And we need teachers and researchers from different fields of study and backgrounds who are ready to share their perspectives, expertise and intellect so that this exchange can develop genuinely new insights. We deeply appreciate that you, Nobel laureates, are engaging in this scientific dialogue and many personal encounters with these young scientists over this week. Thank you. (Applause) Let us also remember those laureates and members of our Founders Assembly who cannot join us anymore having passed away since the last meeting. We honour their memory and keep them in our highest esteem. It is Gerald Edelman, David Hubel, Dale Mortensen and Fredrick Sanger. I invite you to rise for a minute's silence in their memory. Thank you. In this sentence Alfred Nobel already over 100 years ago linked together scientists’ aspiration and their value systems. Looking at this year’s lecture’s titles like “On the Road to an HIV Cure” or the question on “Personalised Medicine - Are we going to cure all diseases and at what price?” one can see that aspiration and ethos are scientists’ constant companions in their scientific life together with enthusiasm and persistence. The Lindau triad “Educate, Inspire, Connect” shall describe this large picture and provide much inspiration to make future contributions for the benefit of mankind. All that starts with young people dedicated to science and research, being aware of the fact that balancing the orientation towards the future with experiences and lessons of the past is important. There is much to learn from the study of our ancestors in science - their successes and their failures. This is why we have developed our Lindau Mediatheque. This online service allows you to access a large number of lectures and discussions held at the Lindau Meetings since 1951, describing 60 years of science history. May the Mediatheque and other projects within our Mission Education serve as an instrument of raising more interest in science as they are also meant as an invitation to pupils and teachers as well as the public in general. For about two weeks now the new version of our Mediatheque has been online - more easily accessible and more attractive than before. I would like to thank the German Ministry of Education and Research, the Carl Zeiss Foundation, the Gerda Henkel Foundation and the International Lake Constance Conference for funding this project. Thanks are also due to Wolfgang Huang who is in charge of it and to Anders Bárány, the scientific mentor of this valuable project. I also want to thank our academic partners, who have nominated their most promising young students. Their contribution in selecting excellent scientists from different regions of the world, cultural backgrounds and scientific approaches is invaluable. This year, for the first time, more young women than men have qualified. Let me also thank our endowment and project partners. You have given testimony of your trust in the Lindau Dialogue which we profoundly appreciate. Fellowships enable the participation of young researchers and we are grateful that the Else Kröner-Fresenius-Stiftung and the Alcoa Foundation have established new programmes. On a special note I would like to thank you, Minister Johanna Wanka, and the staff at the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research for the much appreciated continuous support. In an ever-changing world one great challenge for the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings is to constantly manage change and ensure sustainable development. The renovation and extension of the Inselhalle plays an important role in developing the meetings here in Lindau. I would therefore like to thank the Bavarian Government represented by you, Minister Ilse Aigner, and the City of Lindau for securing the necessary funding. (Applause) We are pleased that later on ARD-alpha, the new German TV channel covering education and science, will be launched here in Lindau. And we appreciate even more that it provides another important venue for our Mission Education. Our gratitude goes to Dr. Ulrich Wilhelm who is the driving force behind this project. This list of thanks would be incomplete without mentioning our executive secretariat under the leadership of Nikolaus Turner, Wolfgang Huang and Susanne Wieczorek. They are dedicated to our Mission Education in an exemplary way. You can be proud of yourselves, especially as you are, parallel to this medicine meeting, preparing the 5th Lindau Meeting on Economic Sciences that will start in a few weeks from now on the 19th August. And last but not least I would like to thank our Scientific Chairmen, Professor Klas Kärre and Professor Stefan Kaufmann, for having compiled this year’s attractive programme. And now I wish you all a fruitful and memorable week at Lake Constance. Welcome! (Applause) It is now my pleasure to invite Professor Klas Kärre, also chairman of the Nobel Assembly for Physiology or Medicine at Karolinska Institutet, to address us on behalf of the Stockholm institutions. (Applause) Dear laureates, young researchers, honoured guests, ladies and gentlemen. It is with great pleasure that I stand here in Lindau today to convey warm greetings from Stockholm from the Nobel Prize awarding institutions and from the Nobel Foundation. You have a wonderful week ahead of you, a week full of science, discussions and meetings with many new friends from all over the world. Count Lennart Bernadotte started this great tradition in 1951. But let us reflect on another man without whom we would not be here today, Alfred Nobel. Let us try to answer one question: If Alfred Nobel had been now in the age of the young researchers we have here today and if he could be here, would he endorse the meeting, would he enjoy it? He described himself in these words - chemist, inventor, entrepreneur, misanthropist, idealist - and you may wonder could a misanthropist be happy in our crowd. Was he a misanthropist? Well, if you look at pictures like this one where he is sitting in his laboratory towards the end of his life, there is something perhaps disillusioned in his look. But I want you to remember Alfred Nobel in a different way, maybe like this: Look at this young man about 25 years of age. Look at those eyes, visionary and full of ambition. And I have seen that look today many times in the eyes of some of the young researchers and, actually, also in the eyes of somewhat older laureates. That is the look that we need when we try to solve problems, when we expand our knowledge and when we deal with challenges of the future. The picture was taken in St. Petersburg where Alfred Nobel grew up, which at the time was the Russian capital and there was a vibrant cosmopolitan atmosphere. Different nationalities and cultures mixed, and science and literature developed in a dynamic interaction between the western European tradition and the aspirations of the Russian intelligentsia. This atmosphere shaped Alfred Nobel. At the age of seventeen he spoke five languages fluently, he excelled in English poetry and chemistry - a somewhat unusual academic combination. At this age his parents sent him off to an educational grand tour in Europe. In Paris, in a laboratory, he met the Italian chemist Ascanio Sobrero who had just discovered the new compound nitroglycerine, a fluid, very volatile dangerous explosive. It made a great impression on Nobel who returned to the family in Russia with a vision to harness nitroglycerine to blast rock in the construction industry. Nobel struggled for a long time with meticulous work on nitroglycerine and finally he succeeded to absorb the volatile fluid into solid phase and he also invented an ignition cap so that he could set it off. Voila, dynamite - patented in 1867 when Alfred was 34 years old. The rest is history. To cut it short, he now took on the role of the entrepreneur and he eventually established 90 factories and laboratories in more than 20 countries all over the world. He continued throughout his life with other inventions and research. In the end he registered more than 300 patents. Apart from in Russia he lived also in Sweden, Germany, France and Italy. He was constantly travelling and was called by his friend Victor Hugo "the richest vagabond in Europe". He could never settle down to form a family and he died in San Remo in 1896 as one of the richest man in the world, without any heirs. In his famous will he donated all his property to establish the Prizes. So the greatness of Alfred Nobel lay in his ability to combine the penetrating mind of the scientist and inventor with a forward-looking dynamism of the industrialist. But he also cultivated his interest in the humanities. He read and wrote poetry and even a play and he kept a huge and well-diversified library. He was very interested in social and peace related issues. So we can thus appreciate how the Nobel Prizes were molded as a fulfilment and extension of his lifetime interests. And we can by now conclude that if a young Alfred Nobel had indeed stepped in through those doors in this very minute, he would have been absolutely thrilled. He was an internationalist. He would have been immensely proud not only to see 37 outstanding laureates who had received the prize in his name but also to learn that these scientists had travelled across the world to meet here in Lindau and discuss with more than 600 scientists from 70 countries. He would have loved to listen to the lectures, would have participated vividly in the panel discussions, tutoring sessions and master classes. I think he particularly would be interested in the panel discussed called “Benefit for Mankind”. So take that as an example, young researchers, when you plan your activities this week. And with that I wish to conclude again in the spirit of Alfred Nobel. Warm greetings from Stockholm and enjoy the meeting. (Applause) Thank you, Klas. Now I'd like to invite your fellow chairperson, Professor Stefan Kaufmann, on stage and then take the opportunity to ask you a few questions about the scientific programme for which you are jointly responsible. So, Professor Kaufmann. (Applause) Now, Stefan - and I use first names on purpose because this week is after all supposed to be very informal - Klas mentioned that he wanted the young researchers to enjoy the week. What else do you hope they’ll get out of it? Well, obviously enjoy the week, I agree. The mission of that meeting is “Educate, Inspire, Interact”, which means build bridges between cultures, between ages and between expertise. Now, it’s you, 600 students from 70 to 80 countries, and it is 37 Nobel laureates, I think it’s you who will make this meeting a success. And it’s you that inspire perhaps also the Nobel laureates. Talk to them, talk to each other and become a family of interactive partners. Thank you. Klas, the meeting programme, as always, features a mixture of plenary lectures and discussions. What's the relationship between those two? So, there are certain traditions here in Lindau. In the mornings we have lectures given by the Nobel laureates. And usually we start off with the most recent laureates who have not been here before. And that’s the tradition also this year. In those sessions there is a one-direction flow of inspiration and education, I admit. There is no discussion. But in the afternoon sessions where the students, the young researchers gather in individual groups with different laureates, then there’s a lot of room for mutual interaction, discussion and also for the laureates to be inspired by the young researchers. And also throughout the evenings in the social programme there are lots of opportunities to informally interact with the laureates. And my advice, as Professor Kaufmann is saying here: Please, don’t be shy. Approach the laureates, ask the questions. And in part the lectures in the morning set some of the tone for the afternoon discussions, presumably? Yes, you can of course ask questions that are inspired by the morning lecture. And, Stefan, could you say something about the selection procedure for all these young people? Oh, that was a difficult process actually. It was some 3000 to 4000 applications. We had to go through all these and identify the best of that and that is work. That is really work and I'm so happy that we found those 600 excellent young researchers and that they are now here and will demonstrate to us how excellent they indeed are. Thank you. Now that I have you here, something I'd like to know. What instructions do you give the Nobel laureates about what topics they are supposed to talk about? That was a difficult one. But, Adam, would you instruct a Nobel laureate on what he or she should be lecturing on? (Laughter). I think they have done this before. We give them free hands. No, there’s one rule: 30 minutes. So, there’s a large police force to make sure 30 minutes is observed. Sorry, you wanted to say something. No, no. You mentioned that Alfred Nobel would have enjoyed the meeting. - Would he have got in? (Laughter) Not necessarily. I didn’t mention it in the talk but he never had any academic degree, not even a high school diploma. He was tutored by university professors in his home because the Russian law prohibited foreign children to go to Russian school. So his CV would have looked kind of meagre compared to most of your CVs. But on the other hand, if he would have a really sparkling recommendation letter, he might have got in. So, I mean the summary is basically that although the names of the young researchers do not appear in the programme as such, they are very much part of the programme and they have to consider themselves part of the programme, right? I couldn't agree more. Of course you will learn. This is probably the only place where you have about one Nobel laureate on 15 to 20 young researchers. So you will learn a lot from them. Not so much what an experiment means but rather how to do the experiment – not the specifics but the general theme of how excellent research is done. And then it’s you to make that a success and hopefully also enjoy it. Well, thank you both very much indeed, that’s been very enlightening, thank you. (Applause) So, now it’s my pleasure to welcome Professor Johanna Wanka, who is the Federal Minister for Education and Research, to give a welcome address. Nobel laureates, ladies and gentlemen, Countess Bettina, Professor Schürer, I welcome Princess Sirindhorn and I'm delighted my colleagues from Austria, Japan and Australia are also present here today. I'm also delighted my colleague from Bavaria is there. I'd like to welcome all of the scientists and guests here today. If I were asked to describe or someone asked me: How do you describe the heart of pioneering science? I would say quite simply "crossing boundaries". And that doesn’t mean boundaries between continents, borders between countries - that's obvious. Science has to be international, otherwise it isn’t science. When I say crossing boundaries I mean the boundaries within science. Modern science has to try to overcome the boundaries of its own disciplines. It needs to pass the boundaries to other disciplines so it can find inspiration there. And, ladies and gentlemen, it also has to overcome the boundaries of generations in order to keep itself alive. And this happens in a unique way in Lindau. And that is more than ever before at a meeting for one discipline. For more than 60 years now, here from Lindau networks have been established crossing the boundaries of cultures, disciplines and generations. I think Lindau is unique. Lindau Nobel Prize Winner Meeting stands for ideas, for impulses for future research work. Lindau is an important place for young scientists to get experience. Another thing that is very important is also the fact that in Lindau we have a space for communicating what science means or should mean to a society. And these three aspects give rise to a very exciting picture of what's going to happen in the week ahead. When we speak about the Nobel Prize Winners Meeting, it’s the opening event and the final panel but that is not what is decisive. What is decisive is what happens from Monday to Thursday in the other events. And I think for all students and postgraduates the four days ahead offer a particular opportunity, a unique opportunity to engage in a direct conversation with the pioneers of your discipline about current research subjects, future research subjects and networking. To build networks which I hope will last beyond the beginning of your academic and scientific work. The fact that you, young scientists, were selected for this conference, you were nominated, shows that you have outstanding characteristics that offer a very promising basis for working in research and teaching. And you’ll experience many things in your life as a researcher. You’ll have to work hard. You’ll have to put up with setbacks. And I think what is very important and which is gaining in importance all the time is that you must never lose sight of the risks involved in your work. In other words the consequences and what is the possible action that results from that. So in your field you need to know that research must not do everything that it can do. And politicians set the limits of course in some cases but what science should be allowed to do is in many cases up to you. Ethical issues have to be taken into consideration far more than even 25 years ago. And it applies to many fields, nanotechnology and so on. And it applies in particular to medicine and the life sciences as a whole. At this point I would like to give you the message that we are all watching our young upcoming scientists. Goethe said, and I think it’s still valid: “At all times it’s only individuals who have worked for science not the age.” That’s why I would like to say at this point that we need you. We need you, your competences, your commitment. We need young excellently trained scientists who are prepared to play an active role in facing the challenges of the future. In the last few years Germany has changed its attitude to science and research and has consistently set priorities there. In the difficult times of the financial and economic crisis the expenditure on science and research has increased from one year to the next against the trend in many other countries. And we now have the situation where 3% of gross domestic product is spent on research and development. To the guests here today I would say: Japan spends more, Korea spends more, and also Israel so that we need to orientate ourselves towards them. But we still know that 3% is a great achievement. And in the last few years we’ve spent thousands of millions in the university sector, so that young people who wish to can study at universities. But we also paid attention to excellence in universities on which we’ve spent a lot of money. And that is something which is outstanding for us in Germany because we have tried and succeeded in providing reliability at university institutions. So people know what funds they can rely on. And this is an address to all those involved in research and development. In Germany you are very welcome and I think you’ll find good opportunities for your work here. I'd like to thank those who are responsible for ensuring that the Nobel Prize Winners Meetings have been able to take place in Lindau in the past few years. I thank Professor Schürer, the Foundation of the Lindau Prize Winners Meeting, the Board of Trustees and the people working in the secretariat, also the sponsors and friends. Of course, I'd like to thank all the Nobel laureates who have taken the time - not just popping in, but have taken a whole week to come and to discuss with young scientists. And I would like to thank Countess Bettina most cordially for her tireless efforts for science and for the room in which you can have this international dialogue of science here at Lake Constance and on the Mainau Island. I wish everyone here today inspiring days. And when I say “science crosses borders” I'd like to end by saying what Emil Gött wrote, and is very apt for scientists in particular: Welcome. (Applause) Thank you, Professor Wanka. In Lindau we are in Bavaria, near the edge but still very much in Bavaria. And so it is my great pleasure to welcome Ilse Aigner, who is Deputy Minister President of Bavaria, to give her welcoming remarks. Dear Countess Bernadotte, dear ministers, excellencies, dear ladies and gentlemen, welcome to Bavaria and welcome to Lindau. I bring you greetings from our Bavarian Minister President, Horst Seehofer, and his best wishes for this 64th Nobel Laureate Meeting in Lindau. I cordially welcome the participants from all over the world who once again have made their way to Bavaria. We are proud to host this elite conference of the global scientific community. What Brazil is for football these days, Lindau is for science. (Applause) The place where the world’s best come together. Actually, both football and science are at home in Bavaria! (Laughter) In both fields Bavaria counts among the world’s best, Bavaria is set on progress through science like almost no other region in the world. This is why the Nobel Laureates Meeting fits in so nicely here. It goes perfectly with Lindau. And we want it to stay that way. Therefore Bavaria plans to invest in the modernisation and expansion of this conference centre, the Inselhalle. We made the decision in the Bavarian Cabinet earlier this year and we are awaiting the green light from Brussels. My Ministry is working on the clarification of this issue. We know that the Nobel Laureate Meeting is, as it were, the jewel in the crown of our scientific landscape. And we also know that in order to secure the future today, we need to invest in science more than ever. Therefore, we dedicate a lot of money to universities and research institutions. We established strong networks between science and industry. I am very pleased that we are particularly well-placed in the field of medicine: Munich, Erlangen, Regensburg, Würzburg, our scientific beacons. Progress in your disciplines enhances our quality of life. Your work shows impressively that science can make all our lives better. This is a noble task indeed. But who could be more apt to embrace this task than you, the participants of the Nobel Laureate Meeting. In this spirit I wish you all an exciting and inspiring Nobel Laureate Meeting 2014, thank you very much. (Applause) Thank you, Frau Aigner. As of course you all realise, a meeting such as this requires considerable support from many sources. And this next section of the opening ceremony is dedicated to recognising some of those supporters. First you’ll see a video showing how the Meeting runs and some of those contributors. And then Professor Wolfgang Schürer, Chairman of the Board of the Foundation for the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings. will confer the title of Honorary Senator on the new addition to the Honorary Senate of the Foundation, Hansjörg Wyss. Now, very sadly Dr. Wyss can’t be here today because he had to fly to you US for urgent family reasons. But Professor Schürer will be conferring the title of Honorary Senator in Dr. Wyss’s absence. But first the video. Science today is global, there is no local science, science is global. And it’s based on collaboration between many people. It’s very important that people speak with one another among institution, among countries, among continents. And it’s very important to have students there to interact with them. There are enormous problems in the world that will not be solved without their help. During the last 64 years more than 30,000 young scientists from more than 80 countries have had the opportunity to meet, learn from and interact with Nobel laureates. This would not have been accomplished without the support of science-promoting institutions, companies and foundations as well as private philanthropists such as this year’s Honorary Senator, Hansjörg Wyss. As an entrepreneur at Synthes he has cemented ties between physicians and industry in order to find new approaches in the field of medical research and design. In addition to that many supporting benefactors, such as the Else Kröner-Fresenius-Stiftung, have also had an important role in enabling the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting 2014. The research of the future needs young people. And especially in medical research this is a big challenge. Supporting young scientists is the main focus of our foundation activity because we believe that the opportunity to meet role models on a personal level is the most inspiring and most important motivator for young people. These students never forget their Lindau experience. Some of them have gone on to become outstanding scientists themselves. So without their support we couldn't bring the students. Most are not from wealthy backgrounds. Our programmes are stretched so I think the support makes all the difference. These generous contributions to the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings as well as project-related donations in kind enhance the scientific and organisational quality of the meetings. With folk dance and music performances the Bavarian Evening has become a real Lindau institution. The event has been hosted by the Free State of Bavaria for many years. Various co-hosts support sundry events, be it the science breakfasts or the international day by providing opportunities for vivid discussions between laureates and young scientists. Government authorities like the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research support the Meeting, not only financially but also with content. The global topics of our time require a particularly close collaboration, a cooperation between science and politics. And I know that science is a very valuable partner for politics due to its sovereignty and incorruptibility. Another important contribution is Lindau’s global network of approximately 200 academic partner institutions that select and nominate young talents for each Lindau Meeting. We want to ensure that the researchers are connected with the international community and set their ambition at the highest international level. And there’s no better way to do this than by introducing them to the community of Nobel laureates and other leading researchers who meet in Lindau. What we want is the best, the best young students, who will find inspiration there and who will connect with others. Lindau is not made for Nobel laureates, it’s made for the students. And this is why it’s important. The Lindau Meeting and its supporters connect and promote scientists worldwide. Their collaboration is the corner stone that enables Lindau’s Mission Education to be carried out into the world. Your Royal Highness, excellencies, Nobel laureates, young scientists, guests of honour, ladies and gentlemen. At this point of the ceremony the induction of Dr. Hansjörg Wyss into the Honorary Senator is scheduled. We profoundly regret that he cannot join us here today due to personal urgent reasons. In order to honour him I will now read the laudation and will present him with the Certificate of Induction at a later occasion. Countess Bettina has characterised the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings as rooted in a unique tradition but oriented towards the future. They are a forum of intergenerational dialogue in science and research. Our Mission Education aims at fostering the understanding of science in society, thereby contributing to a culture of curiosity, research and innovation. We are convinced that the ability to innovate remains one of the key defining features of our societies in order to meet current and, even more so, future challenges. Innovation is often connected with a mind of a genius - the innovator. This might be sometimes appropriate but even then it comprises only a part of the picture. In economics laureate’s Edmund Phelps words, “Any innovation is a new method or a new product becoming a new practice." In other words, an invention is only the beginning of a process leading to genuine innovation. In our modern world fundamental research often prepares the fertile ground. But whether innovation flourishes on this ground depends in most cases on other factors as well. Most importantly it depends on exchange, an exchange of people and an exchange of ideas that leads to cross-fertilisation. Once ideas spread they can be further developed and transferred into another context. Then their true beneficial impact might only be discovered. In other words, ideas have to stand the test of reality. Innovators are the driving forces implementing ideas into practice. Innovators recognise opportunities and are willing to take respective risks. They are committed to leadership in a process of managing change. An eminent innovator in the field of medical research and design, Dr. Hansjörg Wyss developed a small enterprise into the world leader producing medical devices that have assisted the recovery of millions of patients. His dedication to learning has made him an expert in the field that was originally new to him. As an innovator he has played an important role in translating cutting-edge research into sustainable and highly successful applications. One particular feature of his success is the collaboration of research, physicians and industry that he has established as a pioneer. Generations of surgeons have benefited from this cross-fertilisation of researchers and practitioners providing an opportunity to learn and to foster better practices. His dedication to excellence has been the driving force in creating a corporate culture being committed to continuous improvement. Hansjörg Wyss is more than an innovator. His philanthropic commitment is also exemplary in many fields, not just in science and research but also for the benefit of the arts as well as the conservation of nature. He has considered his success a privilege that has allowed him to foster progress in education and research, particularly helping to develop and implement new ideas. He has been playing an instrumental role in grooming best talents all over the world. Through fellowships he has enabled innovative young researchers to pursue their path. With the establishment of the Wyss Center at Harvard University he has created a forum, institutionalising his approach of bringing together partners from various backgrounds. These “collaborations” between faculties from various disciplines but also between research, practice and industry embody the very same spirit that has proved vital to his achievements as an entrepreneur and an innovator. One particular emphasis on these collaborations is the aspiration to learn from nature while developing innovative solutions. Science for the benefit of mankind is one leitmotif of this week to which Hansjörg Wyss has been giving testimony with his lifelong dedication to translating ideas into sustainable solutions. The Board of our Foundation has therefore unanimously decided to induct him into the Honorary Senate. We profoundly regret that he cannot join us here today due to urgent personal reasons and, if you allow, we all send in that context our very best wishes and regards. Allow me to read the document as follows: The Foundation Nobel Prize Winners Meetings hereby appoints Dr. Hansjörg Wyss for his merits as innovator and as a pioneer in the field of medical research and technology as well as for his philanthropic dedication for grooming best talents in science and research which embody the spirit of Lindau’s Mission Education to membership to its Honorary Senate. Lindau June 30th, 2014. Countess Bettina Bernadotte, Thomas Ellerbeck, Nikolaus Turner and myself. (Applause) Thank you. As I mentioned the meeting receives support in many ways and one important source of support comes from the alumni of the Lindau Meetings. A group that now numbers around 30,000 individuals and a group to which you have all come to belong by being here. And in celebration of the alumni we now have a couple of rather special short video messages of greeting from two former participants of the Lindau Meetings. Hello, my name is Reinhold Ewald. I'm one of the astronauts of the European Space Agency ESA. In 1984 I was one of the students visiting the Nobel Laureate Meeting in Lindau. In 1997 I performed a space flight to the space station Mir and the results that I have brought down enabled us to plot a completely new understanding of how sodium is distributed in the human body. My astronaut colleague Alexander Gerst has been training for his mission here in the European Astronaut Centre in Cologne. He is now on board of the International Space Station, circling the earth in 90 minutes in 400 kilometres altitude. Esteemed Nobel laureates, dear students and young scientists from all over the world, dear Countess Bettina and Professor Schürer, honoraries, excellencies and esteemed guests. Even from a distance of 400 kilometres above the Earth I can still recall the vibrant spirit and the academic atmosphere of the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting as I had the honour of being among you during last year’s meeting dedicated to chemistry. In fact I even have my badge here with me! (Laughter) Chemical and physical sciences indeed played their forces with me. Some weeks ago I have been propelled into space. And it is due to the laws of motion and chemistry ruling the world of physical things that I can now circle planet Earth in free fall and enjoy the incredible experience of not feeling my weight. Like you in your research I feel like an explorer. The same curiosity that brought you to your laureate science findings brought me to this laboratory in space, the Columbus Module of the International Space Station. Day by day on board this unique laboratory we downlink science data. We collect samples for our return to Earth. We get new instructions from the investigators who have proposed the experiments. We optimise the experiment processes, we analyse the results and discuss in a way that Columbus himself would have never dreamt about. The Columbuses of the 21st century is the scientific community worldwide - it is you. It is united by super-fast data and communication links. And it still takes humans to go out and leave the safe home port, climb the mountain, face the unknown. But these humans can tap on the knowledge and experience of their kin in science on Earth, the big team on the ground. In this week in Lindau you will discuss progress and latest findings in human physiology and medicine. I'm, of course, not as educated as you are in these fields but the few weeks in space conditions have instilled a great wonder into me. How can my body adapt to an environment it was never made to survive in? I neither need an artificial cardiovascular support nor dialysis for my kidneys, nor any artificial help to digest food, breathe air, sleep or move around. This unites the research we are doing up here with the perseverant way you were following in your laureate research. Science in the extremes made possible by going into space, augmenting every day the admiration we feel towards nature’s way. During this week I feel deeply united with you and your efforts to look into these unknowns. I wish that the noble example of the laureates present in Lindau will be a driver for you, the young scientists, to follow their footsteps in researching the unknowns that surround us. Many greetings from space by the whole international ISS crew to the Columbuses of our times. (Applause) Seems very appropriate to go from the ISS to a launch button, very tempting. But it’s not for me to explain what it’s for. I'd like to welcome the Director of Bayerischer Rundfunk, Ulrich Wilhelm, and he will tell you all about it. (Applause) Dear laureates, dear young scientists, honoured guests, ladies and gentlemen. Science is fascinating, science is important, science concerns us all. Our lives can be changed by the findings of universities and their research facilities. Therefore science needs a strong public voice. This is what we want to provide with the new educational and scientific channel ARD-alpha. We feel privileged that today and during the Lindau Meeting we can transform our educational television channel BR-alpha into ARD-alpha. Thanks to that our channel will gain an even stronger national and international direction, especially concerning the journalistic areas of education and science. This 64th Nobel Laureate Meeting in Lindau impressively proves that science and research have long since been international and global. For the first time, as we’ve heard, the percentage of females participating is higher than males. And at no other event in the world do that many laureates come together on a regular basis. For us from Bavarian Broadcasting it is a great fortune to have Lindau as part of our reporting area, which is why I'm very pleased about ARD-alpha being the official media partner of the Lindau Meeting starting today. We are broadcasting this ceremony live on TV and we are reporting this year more about the meeting than ever before in our TV programmes ARD-alpha and the Bavarian television programme as well as in radio and online. We are proud to do this and we are doing it with firm conviction. The achievements of scientific research promise a better, healthier and more comfortable life but at the same time it is also testing our cultural and ethical beliefs again and again. I want to quote Albert Einstein, Nobel Laureate of 1921. He said, “Why does this magnificent applied science which saves work and makes life easier bring us so little happiness? The simple answer runs: Because we have not yet learnt to make sensible use of it.” This is why explanation is needed, this is why mediation is needed, and this is why media is needed that has an open ear for what matters in science and research. In our programme we want to report about the challenges, the opportunities and the chances of new discoveries. Together with you we also want to report about the limits, risks and ethical aspects of your research because science needs both freedom and responsibility and it needs public discussion about both. At the opening ceremony of the World Cup in Brazil a sensational scientific achievement was presented. A paraplegic young man preformed the kick-off, made possible by an exoskeleton which enables paraplegics to move their legs only through mind control and theoretically could make them walk again. This is impressive evidence of the work of more than 150 scientists from four US universities, the Technical Universities of Lausanne, Switzerland, and Munich, here in Germany, as well as Brazilian neurosurgeons. It is good that science and research enjoy great freedom in many parts of the world. It is good that there is global collaboration when it comes to science. It is good that very different scientific fields work together more and more and thus open up new horizons. And it is good that the media today report more than ever about scientific work and try to present it in a balanced way, both emphatically and critical, because basically every human by nature is curious. Understanding the world is the new educational TV channel's motto and it is why we are so pleased to be able to launch ARD-alpha in this festive setting today. The Laureate Meeting is about the laureates of today taking their time to get into discussion with young scientists, the possible laureates of tomorrow. This motivates, inspires and activates new potentials which is essential for all our societies on this planet. In this spirit I wish you good, constructive and fruitful discussions, many insights and a successful meeting over the next days. Thank you very much. And now I would like to ask Countess Bernadotte, Federal Minister Dr. Johanna Wanka, State Minister Ilse Aigner and Chairman Professor Schürer to kindly join me on stage so that we together can push the button that symbolically launches our channel ARD-alpha. Thank you so much. (Applause) It is part of our human basic layout, that we are all born to enter with curiosity into this world. ARD-Alpha. Understanding the world. Now it’s a particular pleasure to introduce Professor Hans Rosling. He’s a professor of Global Health at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm and he’s going to give us a presentation on the Ignorance Study. Hans, over to you. (Applause) The task of a professor is to do research and teaching. The fantastic laureates here are the most successful in research. I didn’t make it with my research. So I'm here as a teacher. So the laureates to them you will put questions but I will put questions to you about Global Health. Here’s the first one. You can use this device to answer A, B and C. What is the life expectancy of the world population today? Is it 50, 60 or 70 years? Please answer A, B or C. Oh, you are fast here! The students back home they think for a long time. Thank you so much. I have three more questions I'm going to put to you and I think we’ll close the answering on this one now. The next question is: How many percent of the world's children get vaccinated against measles? That means those basic package of vaccines for children that we’ve had for many decades. What is the proportion that get that during their first years of life? Is it 20% of the children of the world, is it 50% or is it 80%? Please answer. Don’t be nervous. We have high ethical standards. No DNA will be collected from the devices afterwards. (Laughter) Now look here. This is the number of children in the world. When I was born there was less than 1 billion children in the world and then it increased like this. Children 0-15 years of age to reach about 2 billion by the turn of the century. One of those lines is the best projection by the best demographers at UN Population Division. The other two I just made up like a fantasy to make a quiz for you. Will there be a continued increase and it will reach 4 billion, press A. Do you think it will slow down, press B. Do you think that there will be no more children than there is today, press C. Thank you. And so for the final question. Where do all the people live? We are 7 billion in the world. I divided the world into four regions – America, Europe - I included Turkey and Russia to have some possibility. Europe has to try to be a little big. And then we have Africa and Asia here. Are the 7 billion distributed like this, press A. Do you think this is the right, press B. Or do you think it’s like this, press C. Thank you very much. Now, the questions are over, let’s go for answers. I start with the last one. And here in Lindau how did you answer? You answered like this. You see, 14% thought it was like this, 36% here and 45% here. Gapminder Foundation with which I work now, we are a start-up, you could say, from Karolinska Institute and we do teaching materials and try to provide a fact-based worldview. So we have studied the Swedish population. We have done a representative sample with a web-based survey and this is how the Swedes answered. Almost like you. The only problem is that this is the right answer! (Laughter) You see, you overestimated the number of people in Africa. Almost half of you thought there were twice as many people in Africa as there are today. There is just 1 billion in Africa, more than half of mankind lives in Asia. Let me explain this. This is how we live today. One in America, one in Europe, one in Africa and four in Asia. So you have to remember that the PIN code of the world is 1114. (Laughter) Otherwise you won’t succeed in the international world. Now, we also know fairly well that up to 2050 there will be no more people in Europe, rather shrinking in spite of emigration. A little more retired people in America but there will be 1 billion more in Asia. But with that the fast population growth in Asia will be over. And in Africa there will be 1 billion more. So 25% more there and 100% more there. And by the end of this century, in the second part of this century, the fast population growth will be over. It may continue to grow a little or may even start to fall but by then there will be one or rather 2 billion more in Africa. This is a very important message, you know, because this means that what we used to call the West, North America and Western Europe, half a billion each here, you know, this old West will be less than 10% of the world population. The main sea of trade will be the Indian Ocean. The front of the world will be here. It’s a tremendous change which we know is ongoing at present. And why can we know this? Well, the fine demographers know fairly well what happens in families. Before 1800, father and mother on average got six children - some got many more, some got less or even none. But this has been the average throughout human history. And the reason that the population was not growing - two became six – is that tragically one, two, three, four died before growing up to become parents themselves. This is the tragedy from which mankind is emerging. Then came the Industrial Revolution and then the Science Revolution, industrially produced soap, the microbiological understanding and with that, you know, populations started to grow. Not because we got more children, no, it was six again, but because more survived. This is what made one quarter of the Swedes move to Minnesota and the world became 7 billion people. This is a short summary of world history. Now many call this exponential growth but if you look here you will see that the exponential growth stopped here in 1960. This is an absolute linear growth for the last 50 years meaning that the growth rate is falling and falling and falling. And what will happen in the future we know fairly well. It will not be this because we are approaching the new balance. In the old balance death kept control of human population. In the new balance it’s the bedroom that keeps control. The young couples decide how many children they should have. And this is happening now in most parts of the world and we think that this is more or less what will happen. Now I will try to discuss a little why this happens. It takes female education, it takes that children are no longer needed to fetch water and firewood and it takes a health that children survive. So how did you answer about the vaccines? What was the vaccine? That is one of the most cost effective ways of helping poor children to survive, you know. And let’s see what the Lindau group said on this. Ooh! This is what the Swedes said. And we also did it in America. And this is the right answer. You see, what a task to be a professor of global health! And this is the most wonderful gift to mankind from biomedical science, is the vaccine. And it’s not known how far it has reached today due to the knowledge of families, due to the capacity of communities, government and the international community helping. I panicked, I went to the zoo in Stockholm and I asked the chimps at the zoo. And look, how they scored! (Laughter) You were beaten by the chimps! This fantastic audience here, you know - the chimps know four to five times more than you. There’s something which is severely wrong in how we communicate the world. It’s something severely wrong about it. We are not fact-based in what we are doing. So let me take the other question. How many children will there be? Let’s see what you answered. Here we have Lindau, this is United States and Sweden and this is the right answer. Beaten by the chimps again. The fact that the number of children in the world has stopped increasing as of this decade is the biggest event in mankind’s history. That is completely missed by academia and media because it happens so slowly. And you know, things that happen slowly like this, you know, it won’t make it to the evening news. You will never hear about them. It moves slowly, slowly like this, bedrooms are changing, bedrooms are changing. Let me show you the realities in the bedroom, what has happened. I won’t film in the bedroom, I would never do that! But you can show fertility rates, the number of children per woman in countries from 2, 4, 6. Large families. Small families. And here length of life, 30, 50, 70 years. You know, each bubble is a country. The size of the bubble is population. So this is China and India. The colour is the region. Red is Asia, blue is Africa, green Americas, and this sort of yellowish that is Europe. This was 1962. Can you see very clearly two types of countries: Developed, they had small families and long life. Developing, they have large families and short life. There was a gap in between. What has happened in the world? Has the world changed? Indeed it has. It has started to benefit from several things but one of the most crucial is the advances in biomedical sciences that has started to be applied. I will now start the world and I will run the world in front of you. Here we go! Can you see how they go for better health care and this is China starting family planning and now it takes off here. And look at Brazil, they don’t care about the church. They use the family planning and the contraceptive. Here’s Indonesia coming. And look here, here is Iran, the Islamic Republic of Iran the fastest changer in the world. And almost all the countries gather up in that corner. And the world has changed completely. The average is 2.5 children per woman today. There are still tragically Congo there, Afghanistan there, you know, where we have still death rates, still not access to contraceptives but the world has changed really much. And if I go over here, I can show you the background. Europe dropped like this early but not fast. America dropped like this and Asia first didn’t drop and then suddenly came down to 2 children per woman. And Africa has it been changing? Yes, it’s on the way down. And we know that this will happen. We don’t know how fast Africa will get out of extreme poverty and we don’t know at what level this will end but the big transition is done. That’s why we can talk about the future is due to something that has already happened in 80% of the bedrooms of the world. And therefore what we know here is that we have increased indeed to 7 billion adults. But look here, the number of children have stopped increasing. In the future it will be like this, you know. The number of children will remain the same, there will be more and more adults. From where will they come? Will they come from space? Because you are not born as an adult, are you? I always read birth announcements in the newspaper. It’s always new born babies, babies, babies. So how can you add 4 billion adults when you don’t add children? I’ll show you. Look here. This is 100 million people below 15, 30, 45, 60. This is me, a European 65 years and older. Same amount of people in all age groups in Europe, almost the same in America just lacking the retired people in South America. Africa, already 400 million below 15 years of age. So if Africa got 2 child families as of tonight, the continent will still double but 50% of you already think it is 2 billion. So for you it will be no news. In Asia - remember, down to 2 - it has stopped increasing like this. So that’s where we are. And what will happen is the old will die, the rest will grow 15 years older and have children, the old die, the rest grows older and they have children and the old die, you get 15 years older and you have children, the old die, you get 15 years older - it’s sort of boring demography, isn’t it? That is what will age the world population. It’s not longer life, that comes on second place as a reason. It’s the fill-up of adult by the already born, that’s the big thing that will happen. It’s one of the most misunderstood myths. The world population is already quite old. We don’t know if Africa will be out of poverty very fast and get 2 child families. It may be less here. But Asia may also start to get more children because now Asia is diving due to lack of gender equity. The women in modern Asia hesitate to marry, hesitate to have children too early and only get one child. It’s a dip in Asia and parts of Europe also. So we don’t know really this and we know that there will be a little longer life and you are contributing to that with your research. Please I hope to be this one here so I can follow statistics for 15 years more, you know. That would be lovely! What did you answer about life expectancy? About life expectancy you answered... let me see You are like Swedes again. This is the right answer. You see why you think that population will age because life will be longer, because you don’t know how long they already are. The best way to know something about the future is to start knowing about the present. And if I show you as the last slide here the distribution of length of life against income. Look at this one. Here we are: 1,000 dollar, 10,000 dollar, 100,000 dollar. The world is unjust. I have to add two zeros to cover all the countries. There’s hundredfold difference in income of the countries of the world. Congo down there and up there is Norway, our neighbour. Not only they’re rich but also very nice! So we have to be very polite to Norwegians these days! And you can see that there are countries on the way here. The average is 70. This is Bangladesh today, Bangladesh have 70 years life expectancy. They don’t drink vodka! (Laughter) It adds a number of years, you know. Russia, like Sweden, has a severe challenge of alcohol abuse, you know. And China is already there, 75, India is on 66. They have good data, these are good estimates, uncertainty range +/- 2 years. Then you have Nigeria there, some African countries down here. And if I change this one to show you colour instead to be babies per woman, you will see that India has 2.5. All countries from here and onwards have small families and surviving kids. That’s why they have this life expectancy. Here we have the poverty problem. Acute infectious diseases, badly needing new diagnostics, new understanding of the biological mechanism, new vector controls, you know, new treatments, new vaccines. You are much needed here. Here in the middle, you know, people now have non-communicable diseases. As one colleague of mine said: “In Asia now we live like the poor but we die like the rich.” And this is a huge challenge because we have new good drugs and they can’t afford them because we need completely new pricing mechanisms. Up there we have the richest countries which have non-communicable diseases and are now moving from cardiovascular and cancer onto Alzheimer and osteoporosis. There’s this continuous move. There’s a continuum in the world, don’t ever divide the world in two parts, developed and developing. It is over, we must have a fact-based world view to understand. And that will help you to see how you can implement the fine results of your research that we are expecting. Thank you very much. (Applause) That was absolutely stunning. I think pressing that launch button had an effect on you too! You just took off. It was amazing. But not on the knowledge! No, the knowledge is still to come. Yeah, it’s still to come, it’s strange. So that was a dramatic and startling demonstration of ignorance. And of fact. But not only ignorance, not only ignorance, because if you score worse than random, the problem is not lack of knowledge. The problem is that your intuition is guided by preconceived ideas that make you guess worse than a chimp. There is no longer a rich European and North America that no one can do things. People around the world have reached a much higher understanding and capacity level and in spite of meagre income they now do much better than North America and Europe did at the same economic level. Okay, so apart from pointing out these facts what do you hope that demonstrating this will achieve with this audience, for instance? Well, if you come to a new city and you have a city map to find your way to the hotel and the conference and to the restaurant, and if you have an old map from a city and the wrong city, you will get lost. If you don’t understand how the world is, you will get lost. To me the most embarrassing as a Swedish public health professor is that those who know this best are the CEOs of the biggest international companies. They know it. They don’t want to be European any longer. Or “I'd rather move to Asia” they say, you know. So it is like there’s a tradition, we are looking in the rear mirror. And we see Tintin and a lot of other things behind us there rather than the windscreen. So, rear mirror is important, history is important, very important but you must have a clear windscreen and see what is coming. And you think that matters for tackling biomedical health questions? Yes, it is because you will see what is needed. You need these four billion people in the middle who now don’t die of acute infection and have malnutrition and they are going into obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular and cancer at the very modest income level. So we need cost effective treatments of this. It’s an even higher intellectual demand than it was like twenty or forty years ago. Thank you. There’s one question that I think many of us wanted to ask, would want to ask which is: How did you learn to give such an incredibly good talk? (Laughter) Well, first it is to know the content. That is number one. I have been obsessed with understanding the world. I was privileged to study in Bangalore, St. John’s Medical College, together with my wife at the age of 24. That changed my mind-set completely. You know what I discovered? Within 30 minutes I realised that the Indian medical school students were better than me. And I was a nerd. I used to be among the best 20%. I fell down to the worst quarter directly in India. And I saw something new coming of a young generation studying hard, wanting to prove that their country is capable. Same in Africa - I’ve been working in Africa a lot. I see leaders of African government and institutions that are extremely clever and capable, absolutely contrary to the rumour we heard. Crooks exist, bad governments exist, but there’s a completely new drive to get countries forwards. So it is the urge to explain what I have the privilege to learn. And then actually I wanted to be an actor. (Laughter) But they threw me out of the theatre and said: “You cannot impersonate. You are yourself all the time.” And now I can be myself, this is who I am. (Laughter and applause) Thank you so much. All I used is freely available on gapminder.org. Welcome to our webpage. Thank you again. (Applause) Magnificent. Yesterday evening some of you young researchers were brave enough to stand in front of a camera and speak a little about your hopes and expectations for the meeting. And the organisers have put those clips together into a short video which we'd like to show you now. I feel ecstatic, electric, very, very energised. And I think that we will have a phenomenal meeting with a lot of incredible interactions and a lot of very, very phenomenal conversations as well. I just applied through the open application process which is really, really hard and I never thought I would just get through the second round. But when I got it, I would say that was actually the best moment in my life so far. I have come prepared with a couple of questions to ask people. There’s one of the laureates, Dr. Murad, who used to work at University of Virginia where I'm studying right now. So I'm really happy to meet him. I'm completely excited to meet a lot of young researchers, Nobel laureates. And I think also my idol would be here, Harald zur Hausen. There’s no more inspiring people in the world than those that have done such incredible science for the world and for the community. I think that’s what makes them so special. Their science has changed society and I hope that maybe I could do that someday. And I think there’s no better persons in the world to learn how to do that from than these people here. And you’ll never find a collection like this on any other day in the year. I'm so fortunate that I get to be here for that. I hope to meet a lot of people, all Nobel laureates. I think it will be a very nice experience, I think the best experience in my life. It’s quite magic for me to be here and I only have good expectation from it and I'm sure that at the end I won’t be disappointed. I'm sure that I’ll meet wonderful people here. And that will be, I'm sure, very decisive for my future as a scientist. That we are able to step outside of our own exclusive little fields and look at how we can interact with other fields that really creates new ideas and it’s with that energy that I hope we can branch out and capture the essence of these meetings. There’s something about that experience that transcends, what you can’t write down. And so in our actions it’s so vital to make sure we keep science going forward. So we’ve come to the end of the opening ceremony. And how appropriate that we end with the voices of the young researchers who, as Stefan and Klas pointed out earlier, are such an essential part of the meeting. Now, we began the afternoon by applauding the Nobel laureates, and I'd like to propose that we end this afternoon by all applauding the young researchers. So please join me in doing so. (Applause) Thank you all and on behalf of all the organisers I wish you a wonderful week in Lindau. Thank you.

Opening Ceremony (2014)

Opening Ceremony of the 64th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting.

Opening Ceremony (2014)

Opening Ceremony of the 64th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting.

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