In 1899 he is appointed lecturer in physical chemistry at the Royal University of Stockholm. In the following years, he begins to work on organic chemistry, partly in collaboration with Astrid Cleve, his first wife. He also visits different laboratories all over Europe. Von Euler-Chelpin's first biochemical work, published in 1904, is about the action of enzymes.

In 1929, the Vitamin Institute and Institute of Biochemistry in Stockholm is established, and von Euler-Chelpin is appointed as its Director. Later Euler-Chelpin investigates the biochemistry of tumours and especially studies the nucleic acids in tumours by means of labelled compounds by a technique he invented in collaboration with G. de Hevesy. In 1941 he retires from teaching, but continues his researches about cancer.

In the summer of 1897 he goes to work in the laboratory of Svante Arrhenius in Stockholm and is appointed assistant there. 

After this, he goes to the University of Göttingen to work from 1896 until 1897 under Walther Nernst.

He dies in Stockholm at the age of 91.

Hans von Euler-Chelpin is born on February 15, 1873, in Augsburg, as the son of a general. He attends school in different cities in Bavaria: Munich, Wurzburg and Ulm.

He studies art from 1891 until 1893 at the Munich Academy of Painting.

From 1902 to 1912 he was married with his first wife Astrid Cleve. In 1913 he marries his second wife, Elisabeth Baroness af Ugglas, who also collaborates with him in his work. They have four children.

Between 1899 and 1900 he visits the laboratory of van’t Hoff in Berlin. Both van 't Hoff and Nernst greatly influence his scientific development.

His desire to study problems of colour and especially the colours of the spectrum leads von Euler-Chelpin to begin, in 1893, the study of science. He therefore goes to the University of Berlin to study chemistry under Emil Fischer and A. Rosenheim, and physics under E. Warburg and Max Planck. In 1895 he takes his doctorate at the University of Berlin.

He takes a short course in physical chemistry in Berlin.

In 1929 von Euler-Chelpin is awarded jointly with Arthur Harden the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work on alcoholic fermentation and the role of enzymes in this process.

In 1906 he is appointed Professor of General and Organic Chemistry at the Royal University of Stockholm. From 1906 onwards, von Euler-Chelpin is chiefly concerned with physico-chemical and biochemical problems. From 1925 until 1930 he works on the chemistry of enzymes. In 1924, von Euler-Chelpin begins his studies of vitamins.