Luc Montagnier is born in Chabris, France.

In 1957, he starts doing research on viruses at Kingsley Sanders' laboratory at Carshalton near London.

Luc Montagnier shares the 2008 Nobel Prize in Medicine with Francoise Barré-Sinoussi and Harald zur Hausen “for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus".

In 1965, he returns to France to the Institut Curie. There he does research on retroviruses.

He is hired as an assistant at the University of Paris-Sorbonne at the age of 23.

He registers both at the School of Medicine and the Faculty of Sciences in Poitiers. At the age of 21, he presents a thesis about light absorption of chloroplasts.

In 1972, Montagnier creates a research unit in the newly created Department of Virology of the Institut Pasteur. He works there until 1997, the goal being to detect viruses involved in human cancers. His involvement in AIDS begins in 1982, when the information circulates that a virus could be the origin of the new disease. Montagnier and his team examine samples taken from some AIDS patients and find the virus that would later become known as HIV.

Later he moves from Carshalton to Glasgow, where a new Institute of Virology had been recently inaugurated.

In 1997, he leaves France for the US, where he is Director of the Center for Molecular and Cellular Biology at Queens College.

After that, he leaves Poitiers for Paris, where completes his medical studies and explores some aspects of biology closer to human beings, particularly neurophysiology, virology and oncology.

Since 2010, he works as a professor at Shanghai Jiao Tong University in China. Montagnier has published two controversial research studies that some have interpreted as support for homeopathy. Although Montagnier disputes such support, many scientists have greeted his claims with harsh criticism.