He returns to France in 1960 for a few years, but since his academic expectations are not met, he returns to Houston.

He moves on to the Salk Institute to establish the Laboratories for Neuroendocrinology. He retires in 1989.

In 1953, he joins the staff of the Department of Physiology at the Baylor University College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, as an assistant professor. He teaches physiology at Baylor College of Medicine for 18 years.

Roger Guillemin shares the 1977 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Andrew V. Schally and Rosalyn Yalow "for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"

Roger Guillemin is born in the French town of Dijon, the capital of Burgundy.

After earning his Bachelor in 1942 and his Master in 1944 at the University of Burgundy he enters medical school in Dijon (University of Burgundy) and receives the M.D. (Doctor of Medicine) degree from the Faculté de Médecine of Lyon, which was then administratively connected to the university in Dijon. For his M.D. thesis, he does experimental work on hypertension in rats at the University of Montreal, with Hans Selye.

Guillemin returns to Montreal and obtains a Ph.D. in physiology in 1953. He investigates how the body controls the hormone secretion of the pituitary gland – for example, what happens as a physiological response to stress. This eventually leads to his Nobel Prize work: He discovers the structure of hormones (GnRH and TRH) produced in the hypothalamus, which control the release of other hormones that in turn stimulate many processes in the body.

He is educated there in the public schools and the lycée.