After the war, Robert Bacher offers Val Fitch a graduate assistantship at Cornell, but he still has to obtain an undergraduate degree. He enrols at McGill University, Montreal, Canada, earning a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering in 1948.

In 1954 Val Fitch becomes a faculty member at Princeton University in New Jersey. From 1960 to 1976, Fitch is Professor of physics and, in 1976, he becomes Cyrus Fogg Brackett Professor. In this period, Fitch switches his interest towards the study of strange particles and the K-mesons. For 20 years, he analyses the behaviour of these particles with his students.

Val Fitch studies at the Gordon High School, from where he graduates in 1940.

Val Fitch is born in Merriman, Nebraska, the youngest of three children. His father Fred Fitch has acquired a cattle ranch in Cherry County not far from the South Dakota border, very close to a Sioux Indian Reservation. His father speaks Sioux Indians' language and becomes honorary chief. Val Fitch's mother, Frances née Logsdon, is a school teacher.

Val Fitch is McDonnell Distinguished University Professor of Physics, Emeritus at Princeton University.

Val Fitch and James Cronin are jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons."

As a soldier, Val Fitch is sent to Los Alamos, New Mexico, to work on the Manhattan Project. For three years, he works as a technician in the laboratory of Ernest Titterton and becomes well acquainted with the techniques of experimental physics. It is a very significant experience. He understands the importance of electronics and electronic techniques in inventing new devices.

Val Fitch is McDonnell Distinguished University Professor of Physics at Princeton University in 1987. In 2000, he is awarded an honorary degree at Princeton's Commencement ceremony.

After Val Fitch's father is injured in a horse riding accident, the family relocates in the nearby town of Gordon, Nebraska, where the father enters the insurance business.

Val Fitch collaborates with particle physicists James Cronin to the analysis of the properties of neutral K mesons using the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron housed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). These observations show that in rare cases the K mesons violate the CP symmetry during their decay. This result is unexpected and is considered one of the fundamental empirical findings concerning the weak interactions of particle physics.

Val Fitch attends the Chadron State College in Chadron, Nebraska, for three years. He does not take a formal degree because he is drafted into the U.S. Army in 1943.

Val Fitch is a graduate student at Columbia University, where he earns the PhD in physics in 1954 with a dissertation made under the supervision of the nuclear physicist Leo James Rainwater. Researching with him, Fitch discovers that the nucleus of the atom is much smaller than was previously thought, about half the size and twice the density. For his dissertation, Fitch designs and builds an experiment to measure the gamma-rays emitted from atoms in which an electron is replaced by a muon (called mu-mesic atoms).