After the war, John Bardeen joins the solid state research group at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in New Jersey - a group headed by William Shockley. He remains there as a research physicist till 1951. His main areas of research are electrical conduction in semiconductors and metals, and surface properties of semiconductors.

Before receiving his PhD, John Bardeen becomes Junior Fellow of the Society of Fellows, Harvard University. There, he spends three years working with Van Vleck and Percy Williams Bridgman on problems concerning cohesion and electrical conduction in metals.

John Bardeen is Visiting Professor, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.

John Bardeen dies of heart disease at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, on January 30, 1991. Bardeen and his wife Jane (1907–1997) are buried in the Forest Hill Cemetery, Madison, WI.

John Bardeen continues his graduate studies at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, working on mathematical problems in applied geophysics and on radiation from antennas. He is introduced to quantum theory by Professor J.H. Van Vleck. In 1929, he graduates with a thesis in geophysics written under the supervision of Professor Leo J. Peters. He later stays for a while in this university as research assistant.

At the age of 15, John Bardeen graduates from Madison Central High School in 1923.

In Spring 1947, Shockley gives John Bardeen and Walter Brattein the task to work on an amplifier built with semiconductor material in order to understand why it does not work. Bardeen develops the quantum theory of surface states. Following Bardeen's hypotheses, Brattein is able to develop and build the first point-contact transistor with a public demonstration held on 23 December 1947. The invention of the transistor revolutionises the world of the electronics.

John Bardeen is awarded, with Leon Cooper and Bob Schrieffer, "for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory." Bardeen is the only scientist who has received two Nobel Prizes in Physics.

John Bardeen attends the University High School in Madison.

John Bardeen becomes Emeritus Professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. In his later years, Bardeen remains active in academic research, and focuses on understanding the flow of electrons in charge density waves through metallic linear chain compounds. He spends his retirement years in Champaign-Urbana with his wife Jane Maxwell.

In 1951, John Bardeen leaves the Bell Labs in conflict with Schockley, and becomes Professor of Electrical Engineering and of Physics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He continues to work on solid-state physics and is involved in the research on the quantum theory of superconductivity.

John Bardeen is Visiting Professor at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

John Bardeen is Member of the Board of Directors, Xerox Corporation, Rochester, New York.

In 1957, along with post-doctoral student Leon Cooper and graduate student Bob Schrieffer, John Bardeen develops the first successful microscopic theory of superconductivity. This theory is known as the BCS theory (for Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer). This theory has profound implications for several fields of physics from condensed matter physics to elementary particle physics.

John Bardeen shares the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics with William Shockley and Walter Brattain "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect".

John Bardeen is an Assistant Professor of Physics at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

John Bardeen is Lorentz Professor, University of Leiden, Netherlands.

Because of the Depression, there are few job offers. In 1930, John Bardeen follows his thesis advisor L. Peters and accepts a position at the Gulf Research Laboratories in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. There, Bardeen works the next three years on the development of methods for the interpretation of magnetic and gravitational surveys.

John Bardeen is Visiting Professor at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

Because of his interest in pure science, John Bardeen resigns from Gulf in 1933 to attend graduate studies in mathematical physics at Princeton University. Bardeen becomes interested in solid state physics, under the supervision of E.P. Wigner. Wigner is employing quantum mechanics to understand the behaviour of semiconductors. Bardeen completes his dissertation on the application of quantum mechanics to metals in 1935, and earns his PhD in mathematical physics in 1936.

John Bardeen is Visiting Professor at Nihon University, Tokyo.

During World War II, John Bardeen works as a civilian physicist at the Naval Ordnance Laboratory in Washington, D.C. Here, Bardeen helps the Navy to develop ways to protect U.S. ships and submarines from magnetic mines and torpedoes.

John Bardeen enrolls at the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1923. He chooses to major in electrical engineering because he doesn't want to become an academic like his father, because it is mathematical, and because engineering offers good job prospects. Bardeen receives his B.S. in electrical engineering in 1928.

John Bardeen is born in Madison, Wisconsin, to Charles R. Bardeen and Althea Harmer. John Bardeen's father is Professor of Anatomy, and Dean of the Medical School of the University of Wisconsin at Madison.

John Bardeen works in the engineering department of the Western Electric Company in Chicago for one term before receiving his Bachelor's degree.