OPENING CEREMONY #LINO15  (2015) - Opening Ceremony of the 65th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting

Ladies and gentlemen, honoured guests, welcome to the 65th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting. I'm Zulfikar Abbany of Germany's International Broadcast, the Deutsche Welle, and I'll be your host this afternoon and for this opening ceremony. And I want to get stuck right in now, with the walk in of the Nobel Laureates. We're also going to see a short opening film, and then we'll have the welcome address by Countess Bettina Bernadotte. So please join me in welcoming the Nobel Laureates of the 65th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting, Countess Bettina Bernadotte and the President of the Federal Republic of Germany, Joachim Gauck. The science today is global, there's no local science. Science is global, and it's based on collaboration between many people. For 65 years, the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings have brought together the world's most talented minds. Nobel Laureates and young scientists share their knowledge, discuss societal and political topics, and connect through informal dialogue. Welcome to the 65th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting. We don't care about nation or boundary, the countries' boundaries. Science is very international. In the past, this was not the case. In the aftermath of World War two, it wasn't easy to bring together international scientists in Germany. In Lindau, the two physicians, Franz Carl Hein, and Gustav Parade wanted to overcome Germany's scientific isolation. They came up with an idea that turned into a mission. A congress with Nobel Laureates. So they approached Count Lennart Bernadotte, who showed great enthusiasm for their idea, and offered his valuable contacts and support. The meeting was conceived as an invitation to European scientists, to join the dialogue and to reconnect. In 1951, seven Nobel Laureates and around 400 other scientists gathered at the first European meeting of Nobel Laureates in medicine. The meeting soon expanded its circle of participants. Since 1953, students have been able to engage with Nobel Laureates up close, and discuss their research. The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings bring together different generations of scientists. No matter their country of origin, age, or discipline, Lindau is an island without borders. In order to maintain high standards and a productive scientific dialogue, the disciplines change annually. Every five years, scientists from the fields of chemistry, physics, and medicine or physiology, reunite for an interdisciplinary meeting. What I really like about the discussions with people from different fields of studies, you always come up with a new idea, because you haven't thought of it. Because your horizon is always limited, it doesn't matter how far you're trying to look. And other people are going to be able to see more than you are seeing. And so, that's what I find so appealing about this meeting, is that, you're going to meet a lot of people with different kinds of backgrounds, and different kinds of horizons. And share this. Lindau offers a rich programme that aims to broaden horizons. There are lectures by Nobel Laureates, and expert panels, at which Nobel Laureates, young scientists, and guests discuss cutting edge research. And there are master classes, where young scientists get the unique opportunity to talk about their projects in front of Nobel Laureates, who then offer feedback, and guidance. The Lindau programme encourages new ideas and thinking. It functions as a source of knowledge and creativity. But there's also time to reflect on all these impressions. At social events, such as international day, the participants celebrate their common passion for science. Lindau is not just an island in Lake Constance, it's an island of inspiration. The cross cultural and intergenerational hub is fertile soil for developing new and innovative ideas. Lindau definitely wants to be a source of inspiration, and motivation for the young scientist, but also for the Nobel Laureates alike. During a week of intense dialogue, scientists are encouraged to talk about their projects. In doing so they find new friends and potential colleagues. The Lindau meeting not only paves the way for the next generation of researchers, but also helps shape a global network. The future is about collaboration across nations and disciplines. To open up new dimensions of scientific research that lead to solutions to pressing global problems. As students, what we read in textbooks is self-evident for us. But meeting the people that actually did the research, that was not self-evident for them, is amazing. And with their legacy, they're building a basis for us, doing our research and trying to better all aspects of life. And with our research, we can build a foundation for future generations. Science for the benefit of mankind and a better future. A mission that's brought together generations of scientists for the past 65 years. Educate, inspire, connect. Mr President Gauck, former President Mr. Köhler, dear Nobel Laureates, young scientists, European Commissioner for Research, Innovation and Science, Moedas, Prime Minister Hasler, Vice Chancellor, and Federal Minister of Austria Dr. Mitterlehner, who is today represented by Professor Novotny. We sadly received Dr. Mitterlehner's last minute cancellation, and send our condolence to Graz. Dear State Minister for Higher Education and Research, Monsieur Mandon, Federal Minister of Education and Research, Professor Wanka, Federal Minister for Economic Operation and Development, Dr. Müller, Mr. President of the Cantonal Government of St. Gallen, Würth, Bavarian State Minister, Dr. Merk, State Secretary, Murawski, Professor Carl-Henrik Heldin, Chairman of the Board of the Nobel Foundation, Excellencies, members of the honorary senate, Representatives of our partners, maecenates and benefactors, scientific academies, Ladies and gentlemen. Welcome to the 65th meeting of the Nobel Laureates and young researchers here on the shores of beautiful Lake Constance. Welcome to a week of lively conversations about science, of invigorating personal encounters, and importantly, to community that has been expanding since that first meeting in 1951. Dear President Gauck, it is our privilege, and a particular pleasure that you have joined the Lindau dialogue, and will address us later on. During your term in office, you have raised many important issues featuring on this week's agenda. The importance of education in natural sciences, the role of science and innovation for sustainable development, and last but not least, the freedom of science, and the responsibility of the scientists. These and many more may be summarised under the role of science in society. So we are eagerly looking forward to your keynote address. We are deeply grateful, that since 1951, almost 400 Nobel Laureates have participated in the Lindau dialogue. Attesting to their passion for inspiring reflection with some of the best young scientists from 88 countries worldwide. Since 2000, 293 Laureates have joined our founder's assembly. Please join me in giving them a very warm welcome applause. This week, we are embarking on the mission education. In a very fundamental sense, education is a process driven by personal interaction. In a nutshell, it is a dialogue. Traditionally a dialogue between generations. Today, in our globalised world, it is also a dialogue among cultures, and as far as science is concerned, a dialogue among disciplines. So we hope that during this week, such an enlightening dialogue unfolds here in Lindau. And I want to encourage all of you, young scientists, to actively approach the Nobel Laureates because this is why the Laureates have come here. At this time, let us also take a moment to remember those Nobel Laureates who have passed away since the last Lindau meeting. These are the professors Martin Perl, Charles Townes, Yves Chauvin, Tomas Tranströmer, Irwin Rose, and most recently in a tragic car accident, together with his wife Alicia, John Nash. And allow me to also name Claus Tschira, who was a close friend of the Lindau meetings, member of the honory senate of our foundation. Please rise for a moment, in their memory. Thank you. This promises to be an extraordinary meeting, and indeed an extraordinary effort made it happen. So I would like to thank our endowment partners, and our benefactors from the public and private sectors, for their trust in the Lindau dialogue. Special thanks are due to Minister Johanna Wanka, and the staff at the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. This year, we are not only celebrating the 65th meeting, but also the 10th anniversary of an enhanced partnership, having started with a commemoration of Einstein's annus mirabilis 1905, 10 years ago, in 2005. Professor Wanka, your support and personal commitment is highly appreciated. More than 100 young researchers were enabled to participate due to your support. Thank you. I would also like to thank you, our academic partners, who have nominated your most promising young researchers. In this way, you guarantee the excellence of the Lindau dialogue. In particular, I would like to thank the former president of the Federal Republic of Germany, Professor Hörst Köhler. Despite our global approach, one continent was hardly covered, Africa. President Köhler serves as patron, on an initiative to invite some of the best students from Africa. It will be borne by the Robert Bosch Foundation, and the Federal Ministry for Economic Operation and Development, under the leadership of Minister Gerd Müller, and Günther Nooke, the German Chancellor's Representative for Africa. After the meeting, is before the meeting. Therefore, I would like to take this opportunity to thank some dedicated colleagues, who have supported the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings through the years: Professor Wolfgang Schürer, and Professor Burkhard Fricke. You acted as vice presidents of the council not only during the meeting, but all year round. Many years. Thank you. And let me also express a warm welcome to the two new vice presidents of the council, Professor Helga Nowotny, and Professor Wolfgang Lubitz. I'm very much looking forward to our joint efforts for the Lindau meetings in the future. For the support of the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings, and our council, I would also like to thank you, Professor Dagmar Schipanski. You've been acting as corresponding member for the last 12 years, until your term ended in March this year. Also, in the foundation for the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings, two board members are passing the torch to their successors. And we have the pleasure to welcome Professor Jürgen Kluge, and Professor Reinhard Pöllath to the board as of January 1st, 2016 on, following Professor Werner Ebke and Professor Wolfgang Schürer. Already today, I can announce we are proud and honoured to welcome Austrian President Heinz Fischer, at next year's meeting, as he will present the laudation for the official farewell to you, Professor Wolfgang Schürer. You have rendered outstanding services to the Lindau meetings during 15 intense years. Full of activities, new projects, and strategic development. It is with great thankfulness, that we look at the results of your work, at the end of this year, when your term as Chairman of the Foundation ends by your decision. Let me now thank the scientific chairpersons of this year's Lindau meeting. There are, as the meeting is a special one, seven of them for this year. It is Astrid Gräslund, Lars Bergström, Rainer Blatt, Stefan Kaufmann, Klas Kärre, Wolfgang Lubitz and Hans Jörnvall. You will see them later on, and I'm sure you have had intriguing interdisciplinary discussions deciding the programme. Thank you very much for this dedicated engagement. The sheer dimensions of this meeting are a great undertaking for our executive secretariat, under the leadership of Nicholas Turner, Wolfgang Huang, and Susanne Wieczorek. You and the whole team have managed this task in exemplary fashion. And we owe you our profound thanks, and great respect. May this 65th Lindau Laureate meeting inspire you all. Welcome to Lindau. Countess Bernadotte, Professor Schürer, President Köhler, Excellencies, Ministers. Minister of State, Lord Mayer, ladies and gentlemen, but above all, my dear Nobel Laureates, I can't tell you how good it feels to be up here, and to look at the faces of all of you who've come here from all over the world. In order to spend the next few days sharing something immensely precious. Your knowledge, your research subjects, yes indeed your brilliance. It may well be, that an idea is born here, that may change the lives of all of us tomorrow. I'm very excited, and delighted to have been invited to the 65th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting. It also fills me with gratitude that such an international conference takes place in Germany, and that I am here to participate. This place has become a symbol, contrary to 1951, when the first meeting took place here in Lindau, Germany, and the German community of scientists, for a long time already has not been isolated. I am amongst those who can remember the year 1951, I was 11 years old. I lived on the other side of the iron curtain, it was not a good time. To experience the people here in the western part, were free and prosperous, whereas in the east, you were neither free nor prosperous. And nor was the world of science, prosperous and free. Now when I heard you mention the year 1951, it reminded me of the fact that we cannot take for granted the fact that our country has been able to pursue the path that it has since 1951 so successfully. And we owe it to many of the people who worked actively at the time, in 1951. Ladies and gentlemen, of course that was a long process. Allowing our country to win back something that many people thought hard to conceive of after the second World War. And that is international recognition. Friends and partners for an intensive exchange, all in a nutshell, trust. Today, I am happy to remind us of the man who was amongst the first to extend his hand to the German science community, it was, dear Countess, your father, Count Lennart Bernadotte, who offered his close contacts to the Swedish royal family. And who, above all, was brave enough, bold enough, to become honorary protector. Many more became supporters, benefactors, and partners in the following years and decades. German and international personalities and institutions from the realm of science, politics, and business, and from the society. The list is long enough to fill a book. I would like to thank all of you who have provided material and immaterial support to the Lindau project. And of course, I would also like to thank the Nobel Laureates, who have made available and continue to make available their time and their expertise pro bono, in order to allow young excellent scientists to share in their experiences. Dear Laureates, your contribution is priceless in every respect. Ladies and gentlemen, if you take a close look at the busy schedule for the next five days, you will find that many of the topics that are being discussed these days in the fields of chemistry, physics, physiology or medicine, are on the agenda. Interdisciplinary questions, too, who number amongst the most important of mankind, like fighting hunger on our world, or responding to climate change and global warming. One of the great advantages of this conference is that it transcends individual disciplines. Thus, it not only overcomes national borders, but also mental borders. And whenever that happens, it requires a long, long time. And I'm sure Professor Schürer, that a lot of work had to go into making a situation possible, where people can transcend borders, after having become used to that border for many, many years. Of course, every science has its own language, its own intellectual construct. The reality for which we are looking for solutions, however, is a complex construct. We've known for a long time that innovations and discoveries sometimes have far reaching consequences, which are often difficult to predict. Even Alfred Nobel had to begin to go that experience with regard to his most prominent invention. He did not foresee that it would be put to use on a massive scale in warfare one day. Even today, you cannot always foresee right from the outset, whether a new invention, a new discovery, will prove a blessing. Or whether there are major risks attached. And this is what makes international conferences like this one so valuable. Science thrives on a critical, open minded exchange of views, and on cooperation transcending borders wherever possible. Last but not least, for reasons to do with funding and financing for research. Without such a corporation project like CERN, with the European particle accelerator, or the international space station would not have been possible. And wherever I can, I will support such forms of cooperation. Of course, ladies and gentlemen, I know that need not tell you, because it is you who, more than any others, many others, see your research in a wider context. See the bigger picture. All of you have already achieved as a consequence of your engaged work, what Alfred Nobel once called the greatest benefit for mankind. Hundreds of others, above all, young researchers, would like to follow in your footsteps. You, ladies and gentlemen, embody some of the most amazing discoveries of science. And you embody all the hopes that are linked with this. How often has research been able to overcome existential problems? Has made it possible for millions, if not billions of people to live a better life. Thus we have every reason to be optimistic that science will continue to help us solve problems, will help us bring about progress through innovation. Will help us at least compensate mistakes we've made in the past. I have no doubt whatsoever about the enormous potential of your work. And still we know that science is not only a driving force for progress, it's not only a solution, or a remedy, a corrective. Sometimes even the results of scientific work and research become the question to be answered. The problem to be solved. You I trust, experience that on more or less daily basis, in theory and practise. Even award winning international collaborative research quickly gets to a point where figures and facts no longer suffice to justify one's own activities. In the realm of basic research, and especially in the areas of application of that research, people are active who set the calls for other people in a way that is of existential importance. If we, in such situations act without reference to moral categories, we act inappropriately, carelessly. This is a topic also being discussed at this year's meeting, the subject matter to be discussed at tomorrow's science breakfast, organised by the French partner. Bears the title "science and ethics". Several keynote speeches will address morals and social issues. Sometimes already reflected in their titles. For example, the revolution of personalised medicine. Are we going to cure all diseases, and at what price? Question mark. Of course my intention is not to anticipate the debates of the conference participants. But I'd like to highlight one aspect that is of central importance for me when we talk about similar topics. And that is the dignity of man. Article one of the Basic Law of the Federal Republic, our constitution that is, which was passed in 1949, reads: Human dignity shall be inviolable. I was reminded of that article recently when I read a newspaper article about genetic engineering of embryonic stem cells. Now, what does that mean for human dignity when genetic makeup, human DNA is being modified, even if it was done so with the best intention? With the intention of preventing certain diseases. And what does the yearning and the striving for genetic perfection imply for the dignity of others who are not perfect? For all of us, that is. Every technological discovery brings with it new questions and conflicts. Parents of children with Down's syndrome told me that people come up them in playgrounds, expressing their sympathy at them having apparently neglected the amniocentesis. And how much they admire them coping nevertheless. Now we're witnessing here, a gradual surreptitious change of the guiding principles that have been guiding our society for years. A change that is driven by scientific progress, ostensibly justified by economic pressure and the need for savings. Morally disguised as sympathy, and the desire to reduce personal suffering, and if so, what would be the consequences of such a change in mentality for society's acceptance of people who are sick, old, or who have an impairment? Now where exactly is the line between what is doable and what is desirable? Where is the ultima ratio? And above all, who is involved in that difficult debate? And is it enough if we leave it to ethics commissions, to parliaments, or the quality press? Seeing it being discussed here and there, every once in a while. I don't think it is enough. I think it ought to be pursued on a broader basis. Because we're talking here, nothing less than our image of man. How do we want to live tomorrow? Who do we want to be tomorrow? And by which standards do we want to evaluate both? Society ought to provide space for such questions. We need to have discussions and agreements that extend beyond the realm of science. Science, scientists cannot and should not have to bear such a great responsibility alone. What we need is a discerning and critical public opinion. And scientists ought to be in involved in a continuous and inclusive, and intensive fashion. Instead of taking them in board every once in a while. Unfortunately, we are still are a far cry from such a broad debate. Many of our fellow citizens ignore existential questions, or defer them to a future time. Most people know more about the Star Wars film series than about the present state of research. And now our universe or the breath-taking speed of developments as regards artificial intelligence. Even so, mind you Stephen Hawking's London wakeup call managed to get the attention of several periodicals, features, and online forums. His scenario of robots who in the course of the next 100 years would become so intelligent that they would overtake the development of humans, and would seize power, was I believe, a well calculated provocation. Apparently, we seemed to have needed that kind of provocation. Public perception, it literally appears to be rigid, or frozen, or driven by fear. It revolves again and again around a phenomenon like genetically modified corn. The way in which we are to tackle often important challenges; like the way in which we are to tackle our future. Questions where we need to find answers to. And that determine no less than the foundations of our lives are often decked, and that is something that is dear to my heart, is discussed with a lack of knowledge of the subject matter, and insufficient info of effects. But said instead of educating people, I've been making the point more than once, we only make people more agitated, and we need to involve the experts more than before. That is an urgent request of mine. Now, and how can we promote such a development? Now if we want to promote a new public awareness, we apparently need more international and interdisciplinary fora. Like the one here in Lindau. And we need to continue to build bridges. Physics or by chemistry benefit from an encounter with philosophy and politics. Equally, medicine needs to continuously apply values and judgements to the practise of medicine. This is why I would like to encourage you, ladies and gentlemen, to take the spirit of interdisciplinarity, the spirit of Lindau back to your desk, back to your seminar rooms and back to your laboratories. Ladies and gentlemen, allow me briefly to look at a problem that I believe to be of special importance for ageing societies. Here, public debate is often characterised by almost knee jerk criticism of civilization and a vague fear of the future. The ability to innovate, which is one of the greatest talents of mankind, is underrated. Of course it has to be continuously accompanied by self-reflection. No denying that fact. But we are aware of the fact that innovation is the opportunity to produce developments that will safeguard our future, and at the same time, will allow us to compensate for some of the mistakes of the past. Innovation always presupposes a certain readiness to run into risks. If you always want to think everything through and calculate all the risks before you put and idea into practise, you will not survive. The internet I believe, is a very graphic example. We've been using it for years without being able to see where digital revolution is going to take us, because we believe that we will be able to control the risks, whereas at the same time to fully exploit the opportunities. The advantages of the internet are evident for the realm of science. The ancient urge of research, to bring about and create networks, has a acquired a new quality as a consequence of online platforms and worldwide real time communication. And large parts of the population benefit from that. Never before have the intellectual and spiritual treasures of the world been open to so many people. Never before has it been so easy to mobilise others for a project with a single appeal at the click of the mouse. Today I will not speak about the dangerous, tasteless, or even inhumane misuse or ways in which the internet is misused. Before, I would have much to say in that regard, though not on this occasion. Not at this event. But allow me to stress the following point: Technology I believe cannot replace human interaction. The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings, 65 years after they were first established, continue to be so attractive because it is here that we experience something that works best when people interact. And that is inspiration. Of course, an email facilitates our lives tremendously, but they cannot take the place of a personal exchange, of an exchange between a Nobel Laureate with a young student, encouraging her to take a broader view of things, to follow a fresh line, or to cut her own path. To some extent, inspiration is also an interdisciplinary act. The product of the interaction of the mind and the heart. A bridge between what we've experienced, and with what we are dreaming about. I think we, human beings have the distinction of being able to inspire each other, and to be inspired, and have been capable of this human responsibility. My dear young scientists, it is in this sense that you ought to do everything you can to insure that your research work meets high ethical standards. This presupposes an open ideally an international exchange of views. But above all, you'll need to be firm in your conviction that to expand one's knowledge is one of the greatest resources of freedom, perhaps even the greatest. Knowledge empowers people. They no longer have to live in fear or in dependency. No longer have to be subjects, or to give in to their fate. Amongst the great legacy left behind by Alfred Nobel, is the realisation that the benefit of science is not only conferred on mankind, it is being won by mankind. May your meeting be inspired by this recognition. Thank you. Thank you very much President Gauck for those very inspiring and timely thoughts. As we saw in the opening film, the very first Lindau Laureate meeting was held back in 1951. It was the dream of two local Lindau doctors, as we know. But this was at a time, well, what can I say, it was the dark ages. There was no internet, no Facebook, no Google, no tracking surveillance, and that posed a huge problem. How do you find the addresses of all the Nobel Laureates that you want to invite to come to the meeting if you can't find them on Facebook or track them on the internet? Well, fortunately, the Nobel Foundation in Stockholm had a comprehensive list, as you do, and they were able to help the two doctors get their dream, and the ball rolling. So it's my great pleasure now to welcome, and invite Carl-Henrik Heldin onto the stage to give his opening remarks. Carl Heldin of course, the chairman of the Nobel Foundation in Stockholm. Thank you. Dear Countess Bettina, Your Excellencies, Nobel Laureates, researchers from all over the world, friends and colleagues. Let me start by expressing my sincere thanks for the invitation to speak at the opening ceremony of this year's Lindau meeting. On behalf of the Nobel Foundation it's a great pleasure for me to address you all here at this beautiful place. The very successful and much appreciated yearly Lindau meetings give young scientists an opportunity to meet with, and be inspired by Nobel Laureates. The activities here in Lindau are based on tradition that Alfred Nobel expressed in his will. Let me therefore tell you a little bit about Alfred Nobel and his mission. It is well known to most people that Alfred Nobel invented dynamite during the 19th century. The availability of safe and dependable explosives had an enormous importance for the buildings of railways, roads, tunnels, and many other constructions. But could of course also be used for not so peaceful purposes. But Alfred Nobel did much more than that. He was a skilful chemist, a talented engineer, and a clever inventor, who was the holder of 355 patents. He had a laboratory in each of his homes, where he performed experiments. He was also a business man, with activities all over the world. In addition, Alfred Nobel was a true renaissance man, with interests not only in the natural sciences, but also in philosophy, the humanities, and literature. Alfred Nobel was born in Sweden, but lived most of his life abroad. Among other places, he lived in St. Petersburg, Paris, and San Remo. He was a true cosmopolitan who travelled a lot. He spoke five languages fluently, and he corresponded intensively with people all over the world. He was obsessed with the ideas of enlightenment, and search for knowledge. He had also very strong beliefs in the fundamental human values. Alfred Nobel was an interesting and multifaceted person. He was not always a happy man, but he must have lived a very rich life. Alfred Nobel died in 1895. In his will, he stipulated that most of his possessions should be used to endow prizes to those who, during the preceding year, had conferred the greatest benefit to mankind. He installed five prizes, and then trusted the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences to select winners of prizes in physics and chemistry. The Karolinska Institute to select awardees in physiology or medicine. The Swedish Academy to select awardees in the literature prize. And the Norwegian parliament to select the peace prize winners. I should remember that at that time Sweden and Norway formed a union. Later on, in 1968, a prize in economy, in memory of Alfred Nobel, was installed by the Swedish Central Bank. By awarding prizes to those who have made breakthroughs in science, written good literature, and contributed to peace, Alfred Nobel wanted to make a difference. He wanted to contribute to a better world. The Nobel Prizes have become very prestigious. There are several reasons why this has happened. Firstly, the Nobel Prize was the first truly international prize, and Alfred Nobel clearly stipulated in his will: no consideration whatever shall ever be given to the nationality of the candidates. But that the most worthy shall receive the prize, whether he be Scandinavian or not." Secondly, the Nobel Prizes represented a substantial amount of money. In the year 1901, when the first prizes was awarded, each of them corresponded to 15 years of salary of a professor. Now the relative value is somewhat less, but still substantial. Finally the Nobel Prizes Institutions are completely independent, and their century long work selecting Laureates, is performed with the highest level of expertise and thoroughness. The Nobel Prize awarding institutions have made the prizes what they are today. With integrity and competence, they have bestowed the Nobel Prize on almost 900 Laureates. The outstanding contribution of these persons to science, literature and peace, as well as their storys and lifes, serve as an inspiration to us all. The discoveries of Nobel Laureates often come from original thinking, and hard work. In many cases, established truths have to be challenged and sceptical environments have to be overcome. A prerequisite for scientific breakthroughs to happen, is that scientists dare to take on difficult and risky projects with no guarantee of success. The stories of the Nobel Laureates and their discoveries are well worth to be told. In order to support and promote the vison of Alfred Nobel, the Nobel Foundation has initiated several outreach activities, including museums in Stockholm and Oslo, where the work of the Nobel Laureates are on display. And through our digital channels, their stories are shared with people all around the globe. Moreover, interdisciplinary meetings have been organised in Sweden the last three years. In order to deepen the dialogue between the scientific community and the rest of society. During these events, a wider audience is given a chance to interact with scientists. Many of whom are Nobel Laureates. And to engage in discussions on topics that concern us all. The themes so far has been genetic revolution, energy, and ageing. A similar event was also organised earlier this year in Tokyo, and the next one is planned for Singapore during this autumn. The meetings here in Lindau had an important function, and are well in line with the vision of Alfred Nobel. A friend of mine had the opportunity to take part in a meeting here in Lindau, when he was still a very young student. He got so inspired by the interactions with the Nobel Laureates he met here, that he decided to become a scientist. He's now a very successful and internationally well-known researcher. For him, his participation in the Lindau meetings changed his life. I'm very much looking forward to the upcoming days here in Lindau, which I am confident will be very interesting. To the young scientists attending the meeting, I would like to say: Make the most out of your opportunity to interact with some of the most brilliant minds of the globe, who are here. Ask questions and take part in discussions, do not be shy. I am confident that the Nobel Laureates, as always, will share their vast knowledge, valuable experience, and enthusiasm with all of you. Alfred Nobel would have loved to be here. I'm sure that meetings of this kind is what he had in mind when he established his prizes to the benefit of mankind. Thank you. Thank you very much, Carl-Henrik Heldin. Now, just take a moment to have a look around you, here in the auditorium. We're just shy of about 1000 people. I can't believe I just said that, my knees are starting to shake. There's about 997 seats here, that's just about enough room for what, 650 young scientists, between 50 and 65 Nobel Laureates, and other dignitaries. That's a lot of people, and it takes some doing to get everybody here. Now this wouldn't be possible without a vast network of donors, supporters, and the like. And fortunately, there are. There's a massive network of supporters, around 220 scientific partnerships help make this possible. To get you all here for a week, to get you all together. They also play an important role in selecting you, the young scientist. You guys are at the top of your game, the best in your field. So that you can come here and talk, and exchange ideas, get into this think tank at Lindau. In just a second we're going to see another short video that's going to tell us a little bit more about those partnerships. And after that, Wolfgang Schürer, the chairman of the board of the Lindau Foundation will continue the proceedings, with the induction of two very dedicated Lindau supporters, into the honorary senate. Every year, more than 600 young scientists get the unique opportunity to meet, learn from, and interact with Nobel Laureates. It's a chance to give recognition to the students, post-docs, and young investigators as they're starting out their careers. A lot of times, the older people get the recognition and the acknowledgement. And this is a chance to sort of say, you've been chosen because of what you've done already. And that you have great promise. More than 200 academic partner institutions around the world select the young participants for each Lindau meeting. We are very proud to have this opportunity for us to provide support for the collaborations between our centre and the Lindau Foundation. The Chinese students, and we have the four years to study in China, but we really hope to have the opportunity to know the outside world. So that it's why it is very important. These students never forget their Lindau experience. And some have gone on to become outstanding scientists themselves. Most are not from wealthy backgrounds. Our programmes are stretched, so I think the support makes all the difference. The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings are very grateful to Professor Horst Köhler, the former federal president of Germany, for initiating a fellowship programme for young scientists from Africa. And to the Robert Bosch Foundation for its financial support. Africa is so much more than the stereotypes that many of us still have in our heads. It is a dynamic, creative, and diverse continent with an enormous and rapidly growing young population, that is hungry for change. This is why I'm grateful and excited that the Lindau meetings have invited young fellows from Africa. Some of the brightest minds from the continent. I'm sure that not only will they learn a lot from the Nobel Laureates, but also that we all will gain from their creativity and persistence. It's the support of science promoting institutions, companies, and foundations, as well as private philanthropists, that make the Lindau meetings possible. Pamela Mars and the other members of the foundation's honorary senate, share and foster the values and goals of Lindau's mission education. They are valued advisors to the board, and distinguished ambassadors of the Lindau meetings. The world is going to be facing an ageing population, we're all going to get older, and there's going to be a lot more of us who are old. How do we deal with that? Helping young scientists realise that they can work with somebody, and realise that these are problems that the world has to solve. And business, and science can do it together. This year, two new members will be inducted to the honorary senate. Maître Bertrand Gros, chairman of Rolex, and Ulrich Wilhelm, director general of the Bavarian Broadcasting Corporation, Bayerischer Rundfunk. Collaboration is the way of the future. So other important partners are government authorities such as the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, which provides substantial support and guidance. The ageing Inselhalle has been home to the Lindau meetings for decades. In order to fulfil future demands, the meeting venue will be completely modernised and expanded. With the outstanding financial support of the free state of Bavaria and the city of Lindau, this major undertaking will begin immediately after this year's meeting, and will be finished by 2017. The Lindau mediatheque is also kept up to date. This state of the art online archive features hundreds of video and audio recordings, and is generously supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and the Carl Zeiss Foundation. Among other things, users can explore the Laureate laboratories through the Nobel Labs 360. The newest addition, life paths, stemming from an idea of Nobel Laureate Arno Penzias, offers a complete overview of the times and places of Nobel Prize winning research findings, and maps the Laureate's life paths on a virtual globe. The combination of this, the week, and the virtual collection of weeks all through the year, that gave Lindau so to say, a unique position in the dialogue between two generations of scientists who share the virtue of truth, who share the desire of curiosity, and who share the feeling of joint responsibility for the future. The Lindau meetings are very grateful to its supporters. With their generous contributions, they don't only enhance the scientific and organisational quality of the event, but also help the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings to connect and promote young scientists worldwide. Lindau was not made for Nobel Laureates, it's made for the students. And this is why it's important. Mr. President, former President Mr. Köhler, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen. The spirit of Lindau has always meant trusteeship. The Nobel Laureates have endowed us with their trust, not once, but twice. The first was in 1951, as it was referred to several times, when the Lindau meetings were established as a European initiative for post-war reconciliation. Those Nobel Laureates who had been forced to emigrate, came back to Germany less than a decade after the horrors of the Nazi dictatorship. The fact that they did come back, evidenced their belief in the scientific dialogue in general, and for the Lindau idea in particular. In his very first address, Count Lennart Bernadotte highlighted the universitas of thought. That is, to reach beyond the divisions of ethnicity, religion, or other biases, in whose names those atrocities had been committed. Then, in 2000, when the Lindau dialogue had reached a critical juncture, Since then, my colleagues and I have aspired to be worthy of your trust. We work to secure the future of the meetings while staying true to their roots. The Lindau dialogue is dedicated to a young generation of scientists. We tried to provide you with mentorship in your quest for distinction in research that we hope results in discovery and innovation for the benefit of mankind. This dialogue represents sustainability in quite a unique fashion. Lindau educates, inspires, and connects. Today, we honour a personality who represents both, trusteeship and mentorship in a unique way. Maître Bertrand Gros. As the guardian of Rolex, you are committed to quality of the highest standards. And to an unfailing pursuit of innovation. You chair a company that is committed both in philosophy and in practise to strive for excellence and performance. Maître Gros stays true to his principles established by the late Hans Wilsdorf more than a century ago. This passion for greatness, this entrepreneurial spirit and his strategic vision enabled the company to establish philanthropic initiatives serving society at large. For more than a decade, he has led the way in breaking new ground, in health, the environment, technology, exploration, and last but not least, cultural heritage. Mentorship is one important branch of Rolexes philanthropic strategy. Conveying curiosity, passion, and dedication is one important dimension of every mentor. Motivation is the engine propelling young scientists on their journeys. But mentorship guides the compass. Leading through and into terra incognito. Protégés and mentors both share and shape these unique experiences, paving the way for discovering new horizons. Maître Gros is not only a distinguished lawyer, and well respected professional, but also a renaissance personality. His wife, Madame Laurence Gros, serves as the chair of the Bodmeriana in Geneva, an iconic institution in the world of knowledge and humanities. Clearly, their hearts and minds are committed to enabling young women and men to serve society at large. Today, Maître Gros, we salute your dedication. We express deep respect to the trusteeship and architectural of mentorship programmes. And we greatly appreciate your commitment to the mission education. Allow me to read the laudation. The foundation Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings hereby appoints Maître Bertrand Gros in recognition of his exemplary trusteeship in pursuing excellence as guideline for superior quality and innovation, in refining a unique brand, and giving testimony of an enlightened mastery of time, this leadership regarding philanthropic initiatives enabling young pioneering women and men to make difference in the fields of health, environment, sports, arts, technology, serving society at large by changing the world, and his initiative as a spiritus rector, to launch educational programmes providing mutual inspiration, fostering curiosity, creativity and learning, in a multi-generational experience for the Laureates of today and tomorrow, to the membership of the honorary senate of the Lindau Foundation. Lindau, June 28th, 2015. Congratulations, Sir. Mr. President, Distinguished Guests, Ladies and Gentlemen, I am of course deeply honoured to have been invited to join your prestigious institution as a member of your senate. I am afraid I do not deserve mister chairman, all the very kind words you addressed to me. But I must humbly confess, that getting older, I'm starting to really appreciate compliments. To reach excellence and to maintain excellence are very difficult challenges that my predecessors managed to achieve superbly. To carry out the task of transmitting excellence, or as to be considered as a mentor, to the next or future generations, is a different matter. Indeed, due to the very high current level of studies taught at universities, or technical schools, today's graduates end up with a tremendous and impressive amount of background knowledge. I believe therefore, that besides teaching of course, experienced people should also focus on sharing human values. Human qualities, such for instance as perseverance, determination, patience, courage, and mainly, passion. Perpetual research was the obsessed value of our German founder, Mr. Hans Wilsdorf, who was never satisfied with all his accomplishments. Or only briefly content, until a new dream came along. Going through life with passion, and doing what you like, and you will never have the impression to be working. Also, remembering what the wise Confucius said more than 2000 years ago. Once again, I thank you for this great honour, and I will try my best to modestly serve the prestigious goals and mission of your institution. Thank you. Let me now turn, ladies and gentlemen, to the second person to be inducted today. Mr. Ulrich Wilhelm. As director general of the Bavarian Broadcasting Corporation, he represents the media. But he's certainly not confined to one road, as his professional achievements show. In many ways, he has been a friend and supporter of the Lindau dialogue for more than a decade. And indeed, you are a trustee for education and science. The media serve as trustees for the people, performing various important functions from conveying information, to scrutinising power. In short, the media are trustees of the knowledge society. Indeed, the media share much of these functions with science. Both science and the media strive for objectivity, which serves as an antidote against myth and prejudice. This fact-based perspective confirms legitimacy to both science and the media. Based on the fact, the journalist can connect the dots, not just presenting information, but reflecting on it. As President Gauck has invited us beyond this fear of journalism. Scientists and journalists share an intrinsic drive for discoveries. They also share a respective ethical code of conduct, thus affirming their role as trustees and hence, their responsibility. In an open society, these responsibilities are inseparably tied to the fundamental freedoms where both science and the media are granted and respected around the world. These respective freedoms and responsibilities are two sides of the very same coin, they are inseparable. Ulrich Wilhelm is a pioneer. He has proactively addressed challenges affecting not just the media sector, but society as a whole. First and foremost, we has realised that in our times, science literacy has become increasingly important, not only for decision makers, but also for our everyday life. He has been the driving force behind the implementation of educational and science related programmes, as we have seen in the intro film. For example referring to last year. Sir John Reith, the first director general of the BBC once said, his policy was to give the public, and I quote, "something rather better than it thinks it wants". End of quote. I'm sure that deep inside, Ulrich Wilhelm, adheres to this very credo and an uncompromising commitment to quality. Exactly one year ago, on the occasion of the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting dedicated to medicine, Ulrich Wilhelm achieved another milestone at launching the first public television in Germany especially dedicated to science and education. Realising at once, what sort of treasure trove it is in the Lindau Mediatheque. Over the years, my colleagues and I have had the privilege and the particular pleasure, to receive advice and guidance from you regarding the media outreach of the Lindau meetings. We certainly cannot quantify the visibility of the Lindau dialogue. But, he has assured that his highly appreciated advice and good services contribute and continue to contribute. What he can say, however, is that he has opened both eyes and doors. My colleagues of the Lindau boards and I owe you, Sir, gratitude and appreciation. And if you don't mind to join. I would like to read the laudation. The Lindau Foundation hereby appoints Ulrich Wilhelm in recognition of his relentless commitment to the strife of objectivity in journalism, reflecting scientific principles, acting as a trustee for public broadcasting and thus, contributing to an open society in a globalising world, for his openness to test new ideas, and dedication to the science and society dialogue by implementing excellent educational features within the programme, and for his commitment in various contributions, to the mission education of the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings, which disseminates the impact of the Lindau dialogue, and aims at raising interest in science within society, but particularly, among pupils and students. Sir, congratulations. Dear Professor Schürer, thank you for these wonderful words, I'm tempted to believe it. Mr. President, former President Mr. Köhler, Dear Countess Bettina, Dear Laureates, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen. To be inducted into the honorary senate of the foundation Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings fills me with immense joy. From the bottom of my heart, I would like to thank you for this wonderful honour. The Lindau meetings are a global model of success. Highly renowned within the international community, this science forum is driven by a concept that is as simple as it is convincing. These meetings bring together outstanding emerging scientists from across the globe with the foremost researchers of our times. In sharing and exchanging ideas, they jointly assume responsibility for the future of mankind. And also have a lot of fun while they are here. This is what constitutes the special Lindau mix, which has been of timeless topicality for some 65 years now. And I can say, with deep conviction, that the Lindau Foundation has secured its high significance far into the future. Researchers need publicity to hone the judgement skills of citizens on relevant topics. And it can only be welcomed that the relationship between the science community and the media is becoming increasingly closer. Knowledge and education are among the core competencies of public service broadcasters. In fact, they are part of our social mandate. And thus we count on scientists who can communicate even complicated ideas in understandable terms to the public. Scientists who also ignite enthusiasm for their cause. Speaking not just on behalf of the media, but also as a citizen supporting the scientific initiatives that originate here is a matter that is very close to my heart. In brief, I would like to throw a spotlight on the Lindau Mediatheque, which was mentioned earlier in Professor Schürer's words and also in the short video, which has evolved into a comprehensive online knowledge platform. And it's really worthwhile to pay many visits to this Mediatheque. Enriching, forward looking, and presented in a contemporary way, the Mediatheque preserves the knowledge of today, for researchers of tomorrow. It is nothing less than the memory of Lindau to which a wide audience can gain access. Free of charge. Once again, I would like to whole heartedly thank the board of the foundation for this induction into the honorary senate. I am very honoured and humbled by the trust that this implies. Thank you so much. If this is your first time at Lindau, you'll no doubt be starting to realise that there are quite a few traditions during the week. Some of those traditions go all the way back to the very first Lindau meeting in 1951. Take for instance, there's the boat trip to Mainau Island at the very end of the week. Another tradition has always been that only Nobel Laureates are allowed to speak during the main scientific programme, but traditions are a bit like rules, they're no good if you can't break them. So, these days, some of the, or many of the young scientists who come here are also invited to speak and present their research during the main scientific programme. Our next speaker is a bit of an exception in himself. How do I put this? He's a, not quite a Nobel Laureate, not especially young, I'm not sure whether I can say that as an ageing 41 year old. In any case he is utterly brilliant, and he's going to talk to us about, wait for it, "Urban Gaga, Ultra Modern Life and Societies". Please welcome onto the stage, Kjell Nordström. Thank you. Thank you. Mr. President, Distinguished Guests. This is a little bit like Hollywood, actually. It reminds me of Hollywood. It's a small place, big impact, lots of celebrities, that's Hollywood, in a way. But talking about Hollywood, when I thought of our meeting here today, actually a film came to my mind that some of you might have seen. Matrix. There were actually three of them. But the first one was the one that had most impact. Matrix. A film about us, human beings. We were stuck in a matrix that shaped our lives, and obviously you could be, you could be some kind of refugee, and break out of the matrix, and live underground, and then life was awful, in a way. Now, maybe we live in a matrix. When I stand back and look at our time, I see patterns, I see probably the same things as you. I see awful acts of terrorism, I see our struggle with climate change, I see all these things, but I also see something that is there for the foreseeable future. Things that have happened over the course of time that this conference has existed. It's a three dimensional matrix. Firstly, we are all, as you might have noticed, capitalists now. Market economists all around the world. We are 200 countries on this planet, all but one, North Korea, are now capitalist one way or the other. Remarkable transformation in a handful of years. We do not have an alternative system. We do not have anything that competes with this system, as of today. Capitalist, that magic thing that is equally difficult to explain to a child as it's probably easy to explain what money is. How can a piece of paper be worth something? Capitalism is like a language. It's esoteric, but it's also like a language. We all speak in a way, capitalism now. But we speak it with a dialect. The German form of capitalism is of course different from the Chinese. The Russian form of capitalism is very different from the Swedish, I can promise you that. We practise capitalism with a dialect. So it is a language that brings us together, that 199 countries now speak. Although we speak it with a dialect. It's also a machinery, a remarkable machinery which most people don't think of. It's a very powerful machine. Maybe one of the most powerful machineries ever created by us human beings. But it can only do one thing. It can sort the efficient from the inefficient. That's what the machine does. That's what the machine can do. The efficient automakers from the inefficient. The efficient restaurants from the inefficient. You can feed anything, almost anything into that machine, and it will create those two piles, the efficient and the inefficient. First dimension of that matrix. We are all capitalists, market economy, across the globe. Second thing, which most of us feel I think, when we travel, is that we are in the beginning, not the end, not the middle. In the beginning of the fastest urbanisation process in human history ever documented. A remarkable process. When this conference, Lindau, was created, we were 30% of the human population on this planet living in cities. More than 50% of humanity in cities. And what we can see now, when we look at the numbers, when we look at human behaviour, is that we are rapidly transforming this planet from 200 countries into 600 cities that will dominate this planet completely in terms of population and economic activity. We will probably by 2050, according to the best estimates we have, have about 80 to 85% of humanity in 600 cities. And I know that some of you have seen that picture, taken night-time of our spotted planet. Because you have seen the 600 dots. Chongqing, Munich, Stockholm, London, they're all there. The 600 dots that will dominate this planet completely. And only, ladies and gentlemen, cover 5% of the land mass. That is almost nothing. Which means, that we are only in the beginning of a rapid transformation of something that will take us back to... something that at least reminds me, as a European, of the mediaeval city state. Of course different, of course in a modern version, but something that we read about when we went to school. And life in those cities... We don't know very much about life in those cities. Remarkably enough, we have collected data, information on regions, on countries, but we don't know very much about cities yet. We do know that cities are a little bit more tolerant than countries, on average. We do know that cities tend to be a woman's place. There are on average more women than men in a city. The men prefer to be in the countryside, and make their own beer, you know. It seems like the women are moving to the cities before the men, it's a worldwide phenomenon. And this we can also discern. We can see that cities are a place where the family is redefined, the way we live our lives. You know better than most people that we live long lives. But 50% on average of the city dwellers live alone. In Stockholm, where I come from, it's 64% single households now, and it's still increasing, ladies and gentlemen, 64. But it's not Stockholm. You go to Amsterdam, we are approaching 60, London, 46% single households, and increasing. Moscow, 60% we don't believe in the statistics, but roughly. Which tells us a little bit about the direction we are moving in. So we know that the cities are more tolerant, we know that they're a little bit more feminine, that family life is redefined. We know that there is sort of an ethical code of conduct in cities that we don't find outside these urban areas, and it sets the agenda for science, for business, and for most of us. By now, ladies and gentlemen, we can see the first companies being born that are not multinational, they are multi urban. They move from city to city to city. And they basically don't care about countries. We can also of course see how political power gradually is moving towards the cities for obvious reasons. Because they control so much of the resources. So much of the talent, and dominate the scene. So, it's a matrix where the first dimension is the market economy. The second dimension is this urban gaga, the urban express of our time that most of us are here in this room will experience the larger part of. The third dimension is of course that magic little machine that you have in your pocket, that is connected to the net, and now we connect our things to the net, like cars, buildings, aeroplanes , and we will have billions of nodes on this net. The net that will span the globe, like a nervous system, in a way. If you take this matrix together, you can see something, which I find puzzling. And you can see it when you visit universities, central banks or other institutions. We know more than we know that we know. That's the organisational problem. For Siemens of today. Siemens don't know what Siemens know. And that's a big problem for Siemens, not for us, but for them. This is the same for Volvo, it's the same for any large institution today that we have an organisational problem, because we create data, we create information, and we create knowledge much faster than we can create organisational solutions to handle the amount of knowledge that we create. Which means that in many cases we end up in this weird state where we don't know what we know, and how much we actually know. Those of you that live close to that part of science know that there is this remarkable thing called the Flynn effect, after Professor James Flynn from New Zealand. He made this incredibly remarkable observation that every generation, technically speaking, seems to be a little bit more intelligent when we use standardised tests. We do not fully understand why of course, but we can empirically see that this is the case. Just as we become a little bit taller over the course of the years. This is the same kind of thing. But that's a slight increase of 0.8% or 1%, but look at the percentage growth of data, information, and knowledge, and you can see a huge gap in between the individual and the collective amount. Technically speaking, technically speaking, ladies and gentlemen, every morning when we wake up, we are a little bit more stupid than day before. That's the unfortunate implication. And we have to find tools, methods, procedures, of course to solve this. For countries, for universities, research networks and what have you. One thing we can see already today, of course, hyper specialisation. But we will see much more sophisticated forms of collaboration than we have seen before, for the simple reason that now, we really need each other to cover that gap between the single individual's amount of information, and the total amount we need to cover that, and there's one way to do that. And that's to create some kind of collaborative arrangements. There is a side effect of the matrix. If you talk to people in the area of literature, they would say, yes, Harold Bloom, the great literature professor at Chicago University used to say it's karaoke literature. There are 27 books you have to read, the rest you can forget. Harold Bloom says, I'm not sure that I agree, but he puts his finger on something interesting. This matrix of ours, of global capitalism that provide us with a language of this remarkable network in our cities, brings us close to each other, we can share things. But we can also see, in other areas than literature, the same thing as Harold Bloom. We drive out originality. Out of many human activities, the side effect is that we drive out originality. And I think one of the things on the agenda for the future, for you and me as researchers, is actually, ladies and gentlemen, to defend and reclaim originality. Thank you very much. Kjell Nordström, thank you very much. To be honest, I don't know how anybody can sleep at night having heard that. Over that last, what is it now, hour or so, we've heard a lot about the young scientists here in attendance at Lindau. We haven't actually heard an awful lot from you guys though. Why are you here? What inspires you? What made you want to come here? What do you expect from the week? What do you expect from the future of science? Don't worry you don't have to answer now. But let's have a look at what some other people have been saying. When I got the letter of acceptance, I was completely surprised. I know that so many people apply, and I never thought I would be accepted. For my work, it's pretty exciting to go a conference like this. Because you're going to meet a lot of people from different fields. And I think it's working out these various boundaries that's the most exciting. That we're able to step outside of our own exclusive little fields, and look at how we can interact with other fields. That really creates new ideas, and it's with that energy that I hope we can kind of branch out and capture the essence of these meetings. These will be my fellow colleagues when I am older, so I have to network now, and see what they are inspired by, and if it's the same as me, and we can sort of collaborate to make solutions for the new problems in the world. The meeting is important because we come from different backgrounds. So coming together to share ideas, and also meeting the Nobel Laureates is a kind of motivation and inspiration. The chance to go to Lindau, is just a really big dream I think if any junior scientist, and I hope to find lots of people who are passionate about science. And to talk to them and be inspired. If you want to be creative, you need to challenge yourself somehow, and in my opinion the best way to challenge yourself is to surround yourself by people who are different from you. There's something about that experience that transcends what you can write down, and so interactions like this are vital to make sure that we keep science going forward. Well, I'm afraid that's just about all from this opening ceremony. We are done, it's now over to you. It's been an absolute pleasure to be your host this afternoon, and on behalf of the organisers, I wish to thank you. And I also would really like to wish you the most inspiring, and most memorable week here at Lindau.