Frederick Sanger and Walter Gilbert are awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1980 for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids. They share the prize with Paul Berg.

Frederick Sanger works on the metabolism of lysine and nitrogen of potatoes with A. Neuberger. He is examined by C. Harington and A. C. Chibnall and is awarded his Ph.D. in 1943.

Frederick Sanger marries Joan Howe. They have three children.

Frederick Sanger dies in 2013 near Cambridge.

Around 1960 Frederick Sanger shifts his attention towards nucleic acids, RNA and DNA. He develops the 'dideoxy' technique for DNA sequencing in 1975. The method allows the rapid determination of DNA and is used to sequence the entire human genome.

In 1951 and 1952 Sanger determines the complete amino acid sequence of the two polypeptide chains of bovine insulin using the 'Sanger Reagent'. He concludes that proteins have defined, unique chemical compositions and determines his assignment in 1955.

Frederick Sanger enters St. John's College, Cambridge to study natural science. He struggles with mathematics and physics and focuses on physiology. Sanger graduates in 1939.

Frederick Sanger obtains a memorial fellowship for medical research. His work is largely concerned with problems related to the determination of the structure of proteins.

Frederick Sanger is drafted into the army but objects military service because of his belives. While his case is reviewed he works at a Quaker centre and as a hospital orderly.

Frederick Sanger is awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that on insulin.

Frederick Sanger becomes a member of the external staff of the Medical Research Council. In 1962 he becomes head of the Protein Chemistry division of the Laboratory of Molecular Biology. Sanger retires in 1983.

Frederick Sanger attends Bryanston School. He particularly enjoys scientific subjects.

Frederick Sanger is born in Rendcomb in Gloucestshire as the second son of Cicely Crewdson and Frederick Sanger.