In 1957, while studying ruby (one of the most useful crystals for lasers) with A.A. Manenkov, Alexander Prochorow comes upon the idea of using this material as an active medium of a laser. Then in 1958, he proposes, as a new type of laser resonator, an "open type" cavity design. In 1963, along with A. S. Selivanenko, he suggests a laser using two-quantum transitions.
Alexander Prochorow is born in Atherton, Queensland, Australia, son of immigrants who fled the tsarist government.
Alexander Prochorow dies of pneumonia at the age of 85 in Moscow.
Alexander Prochorow defends his thesis on the theme "Theory of Stabilization of Frequency of a Tube Oscillator in the Theory of a Small Parameter" at the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute.
After the October Revolution, the family of Alexander Prochorow returns to Russia in 1923.
Alexander Prochorow is Founder and Director of the Prokhorov General Physics Institute in Moscow.
Alexander Prochorow is appointed Deputy Director of the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute.
Prochorow becomes Chief of the Oscillation Laboratory. Along with N. Basov, he creates a molecular oscillator based on ammonia and suggests a method for the production of population inversion using inhomogeneous electric and magnetic fields. In 1955 he starts researching in the field of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) focusing on relaxation times of ions of the iron group elements in a lattice of aluminium oxide, but also on other topics, such as magnetic phase transitions in DPPH.
Alexander Prochorow becomes Assistant Chief of the oscillation laboratory. He works with a group of young scientists on radiospectroscopy of molecular rotations and vibrations, and later on quantum electronics. They focus on a special class of molecules which have three (non-degenerate) moments of inertia. This research is conducted both, experimentally and theoretically.
Alexander Prochorow enters the Physics Department of the Leningrad State University in Moscow. Here he graduates with honours.
Alexander Prochorow starts working on coherent centimetre radiation (microwaves) from electrons in a synchrotron upon the suggestion of Academician V.I. Veksler. Prochorow's results become the basis of his Ph.D.’s thesis which titles "Coherent Radiation of Electrons in the Synchrotron Accelerator". Prochorow demonstrates that the emission is mostly concentrated in the microwave spectral range.
Alexander Prochorow receives one fourth of the Nobel Prize for Physics along with Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov and Charles Hard Townes for "fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle".
Alexander Prochorow joins the Red Army at the beginning of World War II in the Soviet Union. He participates in the Second World War during which he is wounded twice. After his second injury in 1944, he is discharged and he returns to the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute under the guidance of Prof. S.M. Rytov.
Alexander Prochorow becomes a postgraduate student of the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow. Here he works in the oscillations laboratory headed by academician N. D. Papaleksi. In this period Prochorow studies the propagation of radio waves in the ionosphere.