Wolfgang Pauli dies of pancreatic cancer at the Rotkreuz Hospital in Zürich. His room is the number 137. For all his life, Pauli has been preoccupied with the question of why the fine structure constant has a value nearly equal to 1/137.
The German annexation of Austria in 1938 makes Wolfgang Pauli a German citizen. After the outbreak of World War II in 1939, this becomes a problem. In 1940, Pauli fails to obtain Swiss citizenship. Then, he moves to the United States where he becomes Professor of Theoretical Physics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. He remains in the United States for the whole duration of the war.
Wolfgang Pauli is Vising Professor at the University of Michigan.
In autumn 1924, W. Pauli suggests the idea of a fourth quantum number to describe electron's quantum state. This number will be later called spin. In January 1925, Pauli announces the exclusion principle, which states that two electrons within an atom cannot occupy a state with the same values for all the four quantum numbers. Although puzzling, the Pauli exclusion principle works well and explains the structure of the periodic table as well as other properties of matter.
Wolfgang Pauli is Max Born's assistant at the University of Göttingen for one year. Under Max Born, Göttingen is becoming one of the main centres for theoretical physics. There, Pauli attends some illuminating lectures on quantum theory given by Bohr and a new phase of Pauli's scientific life begins.
Wolfgang Ernst Pauli is born in Vienna to Wolfgang Joseph Pauli and his wife Bertha Camilla Schütz. His father is a physician and chemistry professor at the University of Vienna. His godfather is the eminent and influential philosopher Ernst Mach.
Wolfgang Pauli makes is first travel to the United States as Vising Professor at the University of Michigan.
Wolfgang Pauli is lecturer at the University of Hamburg. In this period, Pauli makes fundamental works in quantum mechanics, in particular, he formulates the exclusion principle and the theory of nonrelativistic spin. However he contributes more through correspondence with his pairs, such as Heisenberg and Dirac, than with published papers. Because of that, his role will be sometimes underrecognized.
Wolfgang Pauli is Vising Professor at Purdue University.
Wolfgang Pauli is awarded the Nobel prize "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle." Pauli does not attend the ceremony, but there is a special ceremony at Princeton for him on 10 December. In Stockholm, Professor Waller delivers a presentation speech in Pauli's absence.
Wolfgang Pauli spends one year at the recently established Institute of Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen, under the direction of N. Bohr, who has invited him to join the Institute. There, Pauli is mainly concerned with the phenomenon known as the anomalous Zeeman effect.
Wolfgang Pauli enrolls at the Ludwig-Maximilians University in Munich, working under Arnold Sommerfeld, one of the most eminent theoretical physicists of the period. There, he earns his PhD in July 1921 for his thesis on the quantum theory of ionized molecular hydrogen. In Munich, Pauli meets W. Heisenberg and writes an important monograph on the theory of relativity.
At the end of the war, Wolfgang Pauli comes back to the ETH in Zurich as Professor of Theoretical Physics. In 1949, he obtains the Swiss citizenship.
Wolfgang Pauli is appointed Professor of Theoretical Physics at the ETH in Zürich, Switzerland.
Wolfgang Pauli attends the Döblinger-Gymnasium in Vienna, graduating with distinction in 1918. He is considered a young prodigy, especially in mathematics and physics. Soon after graduation, Pauli writes his first scientific paper concerning Albert Einstein's general relativity.
Wolfgang Pauli is Visiting Professor at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton.