Joshua Lederberg dies of pneumonia in New York at the age of 82.
Joshua Lederberg is Visiting Professor of Bacteriology at the University of California, Berkeley.
Joshua Lederberg attends Junior High School 164 in New York City.
Joshua Lederberg enters College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University Medical School to pursue a medical career. Here he carries out part-time research with Professor F.J. Ryan in the Department of Zoology. In 1946 Lederberg takes a leave of absence from Columbia to pursue graduate research at Yale.
Joshua Lederberg is born in Montclair, NJ, the son of Rabbi Zwih H. and Esther Goldenbaum. At an early age his family moves to the Washington Heights District of Upper Manhattan, New York City.
Lederberg is entrusted the organization of Stanford University Medical School’s Department of Genetics and he is appointed Professor and Executive Head in 1959. In 1962 he becomes Director of the Kennedy Laboratories for Molecular Medicine. At Stanford Lederberg studies viral antibodies in collaboration with fellow Nobel laureate Frank Macfarlane Burnet, deepens the field of artificial intelligence and works with Carl Sagan to prevent microbial contamination in NASA space exploration.
Joshua Lederberg enters Columbia University in the premedical curriculum with a tuition scholarship from the Hayden Trust. Here he serves as a laboratory assistant to Professor F. J. Ryan of the Zoology Department, carrying out experiments on the mutation of the bread mold Neurospora, a useful organism for the study of biochemical genetics. In 1944 he obtains his B.A. with honours in Zoology.
Joshua Lederberg joins the Department of Microbiology and Botany at Yale University as Research Fellow of the Jane Coffin Childs Fund for Medical Research and, during 1946-1947, as a graduate student of Professor E.L. Tatum. Working with him, Lederberg studies the phenomenon of sexual reproduction in bacteria, particularly the species Escherichia coli. Although Lederberg intends to stay at Yale for only a few months, he remains there for two years, receiving his Ph.D. in microbiology in 1948.
Joshua Lederberg receives half of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine "for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria". The other half of the Nobel Prize is shared among George Beadle and Edward Tatum.
Joshua Lederberg is Fulbright Visiting Professor of Bacteriology at Melbourne University, Australia.
Lederberg becomes Assistant Professor of Genetics at the University of Wisconsin, where he is promoted to Associate Professor in 1950 and Professor in 1954. He organizes the Department of Medical Genetics in 1957, of which he becomes Chairman during 1957-1958. In 1952 in the paper “Genetic Exchange in Salmonella”, Lederberg and his student N. D. Zinder reveal that certain bacteriophages are able of carrying a bacterial gene from one bacterium to another. They call this phenomenon "transduction".
Joshua Lederberg marries Esther Miriam Zimmer, who he met at Tatum's laboratory.
During World war II, Joshua Lederberg is assigned duty at the US Naval Hospital at St. Albans in Long Island.
Joshua Lederberg and Tatum publish in 1946 “Gene Recombination in Escherichia coli”, reporting that the mixing of two different strains of a bacterium results in genetic recombination between them and thus to a new, crossbred strain of the bacterium. Lederberg and Tatum demonstrate that bacteria can also reproduce sexually, and that bacterial genetic systems are analogous to those of multicellular organisms.
Joshua Lederberg attends Public School 46 in New York City.
Joshua Lederberg serves as President of the Rockefeller University. Then in 1990 he becomes Professor Emeritus of Molecular Genetics and Informatics.
Joshua Lederberg attends Stuyvesant High School. Here he is introduced to biology through a program known as the American Institute Science laboratory. He conducts research in cytochemistry (chemistry of cells) after school hours and on weekends. During these years he reads several science books of writers such as H.G. Wells, Bernard Jaffe and Paul De Kruif and receives a copy of Meyer Bodansky's “Introduction to Physiological Chemistry” for his Bar Mitzvah.