Pjotr Kapitsa marries in Paris his second wife, Anna Krylova, an academic’s daughter, who has emigrated from Russia together with her mother in 1919.
Pjotr Kapitsa becomes again Director of the Institute for Physical Problems. In 1990 the Instituteis named after him. In July 1955 Kapitsa is also appointed editor-in-chief of the leading physics magazine of the USSR, “Experimental and Theoretic Physics.”
Pjotr Kapitsa earns his Ph.D. from Cambridge University. In 1923, he makes the first experiment in which a cloud chamber is placed in a strong magnetic field, and perceives the bending of alfa-particle paths.
Pjotr Kapitsa receives one half of the Nobel Prize in Physics "for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics", the other half of the Prize is shared by Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson.
The department of Physics and Technology (which later is reorganized into the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology MIPT) is created at the Moscow State University and Kapitsa is one of its founders. He becomes the Head of Department of General Physics. In September he begins reading his lectures. At the end of December 1949 he refuses to take part in formal sessions dedicated to Stalin’s 70th birthday. The authorities relieve Kapitsa of his work at the Moscow State University.
Pjotr Kapitsa attends the electromechanical faculty of the Petrograd Polytechnical Institute where he earns his bachelor in physics. Here, with the help of N.N. Semenov, he proposes a method for determining the magnetic moment of an atom interacting with an inhomogeneous magnetic field, method that later will be used in the Stern-Gerlach experiments.
Pjotr Kapitsa discovers the phenomenon of superfluidity of liquid helium, a phenomenon characterized by a complete absence of viscosity under certain circumstances, allowing superfluids to circulate endlessly in a closed loop with no friction.
The general committee of the Academy of Sciences decides to help Pjotr Kapitsa in his works creating the Physics Laboratory of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Kapitsa is appointed its head.
Pjotr Kapitsa is able to leave Russia to visit in Cambridge his friends John Cockroft and Paul Dirac.
Pjotr Kapitsa is under house arrest in Zvenigorod, a suburb of Moscow until the death of Stalin, for refusing to cooperate with Soviet authorities on projects to improve atomic military capability. During these years Kapitsa works on heat transfer, the problem of the wave flow of thin viscous fluid layers, the problem of determining the effect of airflow on a flowing liquid, and conducts a study on the dynamic stability of a moving pendulum with a vibrating suspension.
Pjotr Kapitsa leads the Department of Oxygen Industry attached to the USSR Council of Ministers, where he develops his low-pressure expansion techniques for industrial purposes.
Pjotr Kapitsa returns to Russia to visit relatives but is not allowed by Stalin's government to travel back to Great Britain. The following year he starts working in the Institute of Physical Problems which is purposely designed to permit him to work on strong magnetic fields, low temperature physics and cryogenics. In 1939, he develops a new method for liquefaction of air with a low-pressure cycle. He works there until 1946 when he displeases Stalin declining to work on nuclear weapons.
Pjotr Kapitsa marries his first wife Nadezhda Chernosvitova in her father’s estate “Priyutnoe” in the Yaroslavl Region.
Pjotr Kapitsa is First Director of Royal Society Mond Laboratory, a lab established at Cambridge formally opened on 3 Februar 1933 to allow him to conduct his research in low-temperature physics. Here he builds a helium liquefier capable of producing 2 litres of helium per hour; this cryogenic apparatus makes possible experiments at extremely low temperatures.
Pjotr Kapitsa chairs the Department of Physics and Technology of Low Temperatures of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology.
Before graduation, Pjotr Kapitsa becomes Lecturer at Petrograd Polytechnical Institute. In these years he publishes several papers revealing his wide-ranging interests and his skill in experimentation. In the winter of 1919, a Spanish flu epidemic devastates his family: his father, his son, his wife and their new-born daughter loose their life.
Kapitsa goes to UK as a member of a scientific mission representing the Soviet Academy of Sciences, but preferring to continue his studies he stops his activities with the scientific mission to enter Cavendish Laboratory under Ernest Rutherford. After his Ph.D., Kapitsa becomes in January 1925 Deputy Director of the Cavendish Laboratory on Magnetic Research, in March 1929 corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences and in May of that same year member of the London Royal Society.
Pjotr Kapitsa is born in Kronstadt, near St. Petersburg, son of Leonid Petrovich Kapitsa, military engineer, and Olga Ieronimovna née Stebnitskaia, working in high education and folklore research.
Pjotr Kapitsa dies in Moscow.